Volume 9.42 | Nov 4

Neural Cell News 9.42 November 4, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Bipolar Patients’ Brain Cells Predict Response to Lithium
The brain cells of patients with bipolar disorder, characterized by severe swings between depression and elation, are more sensitive to stimuli than other people’s brain cells, researchers have discovered. [Press release from Salk Institute discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Rapid Conversion of Fibroblasts into Functional Forebrain GABAergic Interneurons by Direct Genetic Reprogramming
Investigators identified five factors that convert mouse fibroblasts into induced GABAergic interneurons (INs) possessing molecular signatures of telencephalic INs. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Latent Tri-Lineage Potential of Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells Revealed by Nf1 Inactivation
In mice, scientists found that inactivation of neurofibromin 1 (Nf1), a gene mutated in neurofibromatosis type 1, unlocked a latent oligodendrocyte lineage potential to produce all three lineages from neural stem cells in vivo. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

MiR-375 Is Essential for Human Spinal Motor Neuron Development and may Be Involved in Motor Neuron Degeneration
The authors used neural differentiation of Rest-null mouse ESC to identify dozens of microRNAs regulated by REST during neural development. One of the identified microRNAs, miR-375, was upregulated during human spinal motor neuron development. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Subcutaneous Transplantation of Neural Precursor Cells in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Reduces Chemotactic Signals in the Central Nervous System
Scientists explored whether the effect of neural precursor cell transplantation on the clinical course and the pathological features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis is combined with the modulation of chemokines levels expressed in the inflamed central nervous system. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Controls the Migration and Neuronal Differentiation of Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells
Researchers observed that mitochondria were preferentially localized at the leading process of migratory adult neural stem cells, whereas neuronal differentiating cells transiently exhibited perinuclear condensation of mitochondria. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Cell Division Mode Change Mediates the Regulation of Cerebellar Granule Neurogenesis Controlled by the Sonic Hedgehog Signaling
Using time-lapse imaging and cell culture from neuronal progenitor-specific and differentiated neuron-specific reporter mouse lines and Patched+/− mice in which sonic hedgehog signaling is activated, scientists found evidence for the existence of symmetric and asymmetric divisions that are closely associated with progenitor proliferation and differentiation. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article

Neural Stem Cell Transplantation Decreases Neuroinflammation in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
Scientists injected neural stem cells into amyloid precursor protein/PS1 transgenic mice to analyze cognitive function and to measure glial fibrillary acidic protein, ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule-1 and toll-like receptors 4 activation. [J Neurochem] Abstract

Subcellular Localization of Matrin 3 Containing Mutations Associated with ALS and Distal Myopathy
The authors used transient transfection of cultured cell lines to examine the impact of different disease-causing mutations on the localization of Matrin 3 within cells. Using CHO and human H4 neuroglioma cell models, they found that amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)/myopathy mutations do not produce profound changes in the localization of the protein. [PLoS One] Full Article

Different Tissue-Derived Stem Cells: A Comparison of Neural Differentiation Capability
Researchers evaluated the neural differentiation capability of different tissue-derived stem cells coming from different tissue sources such as bone marrow, umbilical cord blood, human endometrium and amniotic fluid, cultured under the same supplemented media neuro-transcription factor conditions. [PLoS One] Full Article

Minocycline Mitigates the Gliogenic Effects of Proinflammatory Cytokines on Neural Stem Cells
The authors investigated the direct effects of minocycline and of proinflammatory cytokines on the differentiation potential of neural stem cells (NSCs) in vitro and in vivo. Primary fetal rat NSCs were treated with minocycline plus a combination of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin 1β, and interleukin 6. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract

Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
Neurogenesis following Stroke Affecting the Adult Brain
A bulk of experimental evidence supports the idea that the stroke-damaged adult brain makes an attempt to repair itself by producing new neurons also in areas where neurogenesis does not normally occur (e.g., the striatum and cerebral cortex). Knowledge about mechanisms regulating the different steps of neurogenesis after stroke is rapidly increasing but still incomplete. [Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol] Abstract

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Newron Pharmaceuticals Announces Planned Pivotal Trial Design for Sarizotan for Patients with Rett Syndrome, a Rare Neurodevelopmental Disease
Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A. announced the study design and details of its planned pivotal trial for sarizotan for the treatment of patients with Rett syndrome, a rare neurodevelopmental disease. [Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A. (Business Wire)] Press Release

GSK and Merck to Study Immunotherapy Combination as Potential Cancer Treatment
GSK and Merck announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical trial designed to evaluate GSK’s investigational immunotherapy GSK3174998 as monotherapy and in combination with Merck’s anti-PD-1 therapy, Keytruda® in patients with locally advanced, recurrent or metastatic solid tumor(s) that have progressed after standard treatment. [GlaxoSmithKline plc] Press Release

TSRI Team Wins $1.8 Million to Study Early Events in Cancer Metastasis
Scientists at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) have been awarded a grant of more than $1.8 million from the National Institutes of Health’s National Cancer Institute to investigate the molecular machinery involved in metastasis. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

American Brain Tumor Association Awards nearly $1 Million in New Research Grants
The American Brain Tumor Association announced that it awarded $980,000 in funding to support early career scientists and investigators pursuing high-risk, high-impact projects deemed to have the potential to change current diagnostic or treatment paradigms for adult and pediatric brain tumor care. [American Brain Tumor Association] Press Release

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NEW Keystone Symposium – Traumatic Brain Injury: Clinical, Pathological and Translational Mechanisms
January 24-27, 2016
Santa Fe, United States

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Scaffold Design & Drug/Gene Delivery for Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Engineering Research (Nanyang Technological University)

NEW Director – Brown Institute for Brain Science (Brown University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Stem Cell Research (University of California, Davis)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (Columbia University)

Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

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