Volume 10.00 | Jan 6

Neural Cell News 10.00 January 6, 2016
Neural Cell News
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The Calcium Sensor Synaptotagmin 7 Is Required for Synaptic Facilitation
The authors showed that synaptotagmin 7 (Syt7) is a calcium sensor that is required for facilitation at several central synapses. In Syt7-knockout mice, facilitation is eliminated even though the initial probability of release and the presynaptic residual calcium signals are unaltered. [Nature] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Critical Role for VEGF and VEGFR2 in NMDA Receptor Synaptic Function and Fear-Related Behavior
Using a combination of electrophysiological, single-molecule imaging and conditional transgenic approaches, scientists identified the molecular basis of the vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) effect on synaptic transmission and plasticity. [Mol Psychiatry] Full Article

The Autism-Associated MET Receptor Tyrosine Kinase Engages Early Neuronal Growth Mechanism and Controls Glutamatergic Circuits Development in the Forebrain
Researchers showed that MET protein expression is dynamically regulated and compartmentalized in developing neurons. [Mol Psychiatry] Abstract

Regulation of Neural Gene Transcription by Optogenetic Inhibition of the RE1-Silencing Transcription Factor
By expressing AsLOV2 chimeras in Neuro2a cells, scientists achieved light-dependent modulation of REST target genes that was associated with an improved neural differentiation. In primary neurons, light-mediated REST inhibition increased Na+-channel 1.2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcription and boosted Na+ currents and neuronal firing. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

The p38 MAP Kinase Pathway Modulates the Hypoxia Response and Glutamate Receptor Trafficking in Aging Neurons
Researchers found that loss of p38 MAP kinase (MAPK) impairs EGL-9 protein localization in neurons and activates the hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF-1, suggesting that p38 MAPK inhibits the hypoxia response pathway through EGL-9. [Elife] Abstract | Full Article

YB-1 Is Elevated in Medulloblastoma and Drives Proliferation in Sonic Hedgehog-Dependent Cerebellar Granule Neuron Progenitor Cells and Medulloblastoma Cells
Scientists report that Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1), an onco-protein regulating transcription and translation, binds to insulin-like growth factor 2 promoter P3. They observed that YB-1 is upregulated across human medulloblastoma subclasses as well as in other varieties of pediatric brain tumors. [Oncogene] Abstract

Heterogeneity of Radial Glia-Like Cells in the Adult Hippocampus
Scientists characterized the morphology of radial glia-like cells, their molecular identity, proliferative activity, and fate determination in the adult mouse hippocampus. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Signaling Pathway Models as Biomarkers: Patient-Specific Simulations of JNK Activity Predict the Survival of Neuroblastoma Patients
Researchers characterized the network that regulated stress signaling by the c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) pathway in neuroblastoma cells. [Sci Signal] Abstract

CRISPR/Cas9 Facilitates Investigation of Neural Circuit Disease Using Human iPSCs: Mechanism of Epilepsy Caused by an SCN1A Loss-Of-Function Mutation
By fluorescently labeling GABAergic subtype in iPSC-derived neurons using CRISPR/Cas9, researchers, for the first time performed electrophysiological studies on SCN1A-expressing neural subtype and monitored the postsynaptic activity of both inhibitory and excitatory types. [Transl Psychiatry] Full Article

RPS23RG1 Reduces aβ Oligomer-Induced Synaptic and Cognitive Deficits
Rps23rg1, a functional retroposed mouse gene, has been shown to reduce Alzheimer’s β-amyloid (Aβ) production and tau phosphorylation. Scientists have identified its human homolog, and demonstrated that RPS23RG1 regulates synaptic plasticity, thus counteracting Aβ oligomer (oAβ)-induced cognitive deficits in mice. [Sci Rep] Full Article

PARP6 Is a Regulator of Hippocampal Dendritic Morphogenesis
Researchers demonstrated that poly-ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP) 6, a neuronally enriched PARP that catalyzes mono-ADP-ribosylation, regulates hippocampal dendrite morphogenesis, a process that is critical for proper neural circuit formation during development. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Effects of Calcitriol on Experimental Spinal Cord Injury in Rats
Histological damage and neuron loss after spinal cord injury were reduced in calcitriol-treated rats, and functional recovery was significantly promoted in the calcitriol group compared with controls. [Spinal Cord] Abstract

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Ventricular Arrhythmias and the His–Purkinje System
The specific transcriptional signatures and functional properties of Purkinje cells, including their intracellular calcium dynamics, underlie their extreme arrhythmogenicity. However, the identification of vulnerable individuals remains challenging, and the molecular mechanisms of Purkinje-related arrhythmias have to be characterized further to enable the development of interventions to prevent lethal cardiac arrhythmias. [Nat Rev Cardiol] Abstract

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International Stem Cell Corporation Signed a Clinical Service Agreement With the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health
International Stem Cell Corporation announced that it has entered into a master clinical research agreement with the Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health to conduct Phase I/IIa clinical trial, dose escalation trial of human parthenogenetic stem cells-derived neural stem cells in Parkinson’s disease patients. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

Pioneering Glaucoma Expert Appointed Chair of the Department of Ophthalmology at NYU Langone Medical Center
Internationally renowned clinician-scientist Joel S. Schuman, MD, whose pioneering work has led to significant advances in the detection and treatment of glaucoma, was appointed chair of the Department of Ophthalmology at NYU Langone Medical Center. [NYU Langone Medical Center] Press Release

ElectroCore Appoints Desitin to Launch gammaCore for the Treatment of Primary Headache across Germany
ElectroCore’s non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation device, gammaCore, will be launched across Germany by Desitin for the treatment of migraine and cluster headache. [ElectroCore (BusinessWire)] Press Release

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February 24-25, 2016
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NEW Project Manager – Neurodegeneration and Stem Cell Science (Université du Luxembourg)

NEW Group Leader – Neuroscience (Neuroscience in Bordeaux)

NEW PhD Studentship – Various Projects (Hector Fellow Academy)

NEW PhD Studentship – Neural Circuits (Max Planck Research School for Neural Circuits)

NEW Faculty Positions – Neuroscience (Korea Advanced Institute of Science and Technology)

Neurogenetics Research and Clinical Genetic Counselor (Howard Hughes Medical Institute)

Senior Research Fellow – Brain Cancer (The University of Queensland)

Research Assistant, Associate or Full Professor – Vision Health (University of Montreal)

Investigator – Cancer Biology (Wake Forest Baptist School of Medicine)

Director – Brown Institute for Brain Science (Brown University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

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