Volume 9.44 | Nov 25

Neural Cell News 9.44 November 25, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Umbilical Cells Help Eye’s Neurons Connect
Cells isolated from human umbilical cord tissue have been shown to produce molecules that help retinal neurons from the eyes of rats grow, connect and survive, according to researchers. The findings implicate one family of molecules in particular — thrombospondins — that may have therapeutic potential for the treatment of degenerative eye diseases. [Press release from Duke University discussing publication in The Journal of Neuroscience] Press Release | Abstract
FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Tripartite Containing Motif 32 Modulates Proliferation of Human Neural Precursor Cells in HIV-1 Neurodegeneration
Using primary cultures of human fetal brain-derived human neural precursor cells (NPCs), scientists gained novel insights into the role of a neural stem cell determinant, tripartite containing motif 32, in HIV-1 Tat-induced quiescence of NPCs. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Combining Suppression of Stemness with Lineage-Specific Induction Leads to Conversion of Pluripotent Cells into Functional Neurons
The authors describe a strategy that relies on a combination of Sox2 inhibition with lineage-specific induction to promote efficient and selective differentiation of pluripotent P19 cells into neurons. [Chem Biol]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Multidrug Resistance Protein 1 Reduces the Aggregation of Mutant Huntingtin in Neuronal Cells Derived from the Huntington’s Disease R6/2 Model
Using neuronal stem cells from R6/2 mice, researchers developed an in vitro Huntington’s disease model to test mutant huntingtin (mHtt) accumulation in the nuclei of neurons. When multidrug resistance protein 1 (MDR1) activity in cells was decreased by verapamil or siRNA, mHtt aggregation in the nuclei increased, whereas the induction of MDR1 resulted in a decrease in mHtt aggregation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Specification and Maturation of Nociceptive Neurons from Human Embryonic Stem Cells
The authors describe a system for efficiently guiding human embryonic stem cells into nociceptive neurons by first inducing these cells to the neural lineage. Subsequent addition of retinoic acid and BMP4 at specific time points and concentrations yielded a high population of neural crest progenitor cells, which further differentiated into nociceptive neurons. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Upregulated miRNA-622 Inhibited Cell Proliferation, Motility, and Invasion via Repressing Kirsten Rat Sarcoma in Glioblastoma
Researchers conducted in vitro experiments as well as clinical studies in a cohort of 20 glioblastoma samples. They demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-622 expression was lower in tumor tissues and cells, when compared to normal brain tissues and normal human astrocyte cells, while K-Ras messenger RNA and protein showed the opposite expression profile. [Tumor Biol] Abstract

Long-Term Fate Mapping Using Conditional Lentiviral Vectors Reveals a Continuous Contribution of Radial Glia-Like Cells to Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis in Mice
Scientists studied neurogenesis in the dentate gyrus with bioluminescence imaging and histological techniques. Stereotactic injection of the Cre-Flex vectors into the dentate gyrus of transgenic Nestin-Cre mice resulted in specific labeling of the nestin-positive neural stem cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Siloxane Nanoprobes for Labeling and Dual Modality Functional Imaging of Neural Stem Cells
Scientists recently reported a new nanoprobe platform for cell labeling and imaging using fluorophore doped siloxane core nanoemulsions as dual modality, dual-functional nanoprobes. In this study they successfully demonstrated the labeling, dual-modality imaging, and oximetry of neural progenitor/stem cells in vitro using this platform. [Ann Biomed Eng] Abstract

Self-Amplified BDNF Transcription Is a Regulatory System for Synaptic Maturation in Cultured Cortical Neurons
Investigators examined the mechanism behind brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-induced Bdnf mRNA production and the physiological role of its amplification system using cortical neurons. [Neurochem Int] Abstract

Carvacrol Protects Neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y Cells against Fe2+-Induced Apoptosis by Suppressing Activation of MAPK/JNK-NF-κB Signaling Pathway
Investigators examined whether carvacrol protected neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells against Fe2+-induced apoptosis and explored the underlying mechanisms. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Abstract

Tetranectin Gene Deletion Induces Parkinson’s Disease by Enhancing Neuronal Apoptosis
The authors investigated the role of tetranectin (TET) in neurodegeneration in vitro and in vivo. They showed that siRNA knockdown of TET decreased cell viability and the number of tyrosine hydroxylase positive cells, whereas it increased caspase-3 activity and the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio in cultured primary dopaminergic neurons. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

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A Novel Perspective on Neuron Study: Damaging and Promoting Effects in Different Neurons Induced by Mechanical Stress
Research conducted in recent decades on the effects of different mechanical forces, especially compression and tension on various neurons, including dorsal root ganglion neurons, retinal ganglion cells, cerebral cortex neurons, hippocampus neurons, neural stem cells, and other neurons, are summarized. [Biomech Model Mechanobiol] Abstract

Stem Cell Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
Researchers review the current state of research on the use of stem cell therapy in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and discuss the most promising stem cells for the treatment of ALS. [Cell Regen] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
VBI Vaccines Presents Update and New Data Supporting Its Glioblastoma Immunotherapy Program
VBI Vaccines Inc. presented an update and new data supporting its glioblastoma multiforme cancer immunotherapy program. [Press release from VBI Vaccines Inc. discussing research presented at the European Society for Medical Oncology (“ESMO”) Symposium on Immuno-Oncology 2015, Lausanne] Press Release

Long-Term Survival Benefit Demonstrated in Phase II ReACT Study of RINTEGA® in Recurrent Bevacizumab-Naive Glioblastoma
Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. presented mature survival data from the company’s randomized, double-blind Phase II study of RINTEGA® (rindopepimut) in patients with EGFRvIII-positive, recurrent glioblastoma. [Press release from Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 20th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO), San Antonio] Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Presents Updated ICT-107 Phase II Survival and Immune Response Data
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced the presentation of recently updated overall survival results and immune response data from the Phase II trial of ICT-107 in patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma. [Press release from ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. discussing research presented at the 20th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO), San Antonio] Press Release

New Phase III Data Show Optune in Combination with Second Line Chemotherapy Is Superior to Second Line Chemotherapy Alone in Glioblastoma Patients at First Recurrence
Novocure announced new Phase III data showing that glioblastoma patients who received TTFields in combination with chemotherapy at first recurrence lived significantly longer than patients who received chemotherapy alone. [Press release from Novocure discussing research presented at the 20th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO), San Antonio] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals Updates VAL-083 Clinical Trial in Refractory Glioblastoma Multiforme at Society for Neuro-Oncology Annual Meeting
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. presented updated data from the fully enrolled 14-patient expansion cohort of the company’s ongoing Phase II clinical study of VAL-083 in refractory glioblastoma multiforme that is being conducted at Sarah Cannon Research Institute, Mayo Clinic, and UCSF Medical Center. [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 20th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology (SNO), San Antonio] Press Release

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StemCells, Inc. Interim Trial Data Show Motor Improvement in Patients with Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
StemCells, Inc. announced that the six-month interim results for the first cohort in its ongoing Phase II Pathway™ Study in cervical spinal cord injury showed motor improvements in both strength and function. [StemCells, Inc.] Press Release

Aldoxorubicin Continues to Demonstrate Positive Clinical Activity in Phase II Glioblastoma Trial
CytRx Corporation announced that it has achieved its target enrollment of 28 patients with unresectable glioblastoma multiforme in its Phase II trial with aldoxorubicin. [CytRx Corporation] Press Release

Triphase Accelerator Corporation Announces FDA Orphan Drug Designation for Marizomib in Malignant Glioma
Triphase Accelerator Corporation announced that the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted orphan drug designation for marizomib for the treatment of patients with malignant glioma, an aggressive form of brain cancer with a significant unmet need due to its poor prognosis. [Triphase Accelerator Corporation] Press Release

Aquinnah Pharmaceuticals Receives $680,000 Grant from NINDS To Advance New Therapies for ALS
Aquinnah Pharmaceuticals announced that it will receive $680,000 from the National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke (NINDS) to advance novel drug compounds for treating patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). [Aquinnah Pharmaceuticals] Press Release
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February 2-4, 2016
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NEW Research Assistant, Associate or Full Professor – Vision Health (University of Montreal)

Investigator – Cancer Biology (Wake Forest Baptist School of Medicine)

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Postdoctoral Position – Scaffold Design & Drug/Gene Delivery for Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Engineering Research (Nanyang Technological University)

Director – Brown Institute for Brain Science (Brown University)

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Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Stem Cell Research (University of California, Davis)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (Columbia University)

Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

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