Volume 9.41 | Oct 28

Neural Cell News 9.41 October 28, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Targeting Mutant Proteins Might Be Silver Bullet for Neurodegenerative Diseases
Scientists used a range of neuro-genetic, gene therapy, biochemical and structural biology research techniques to discover that the mutant GlyRS enzyme blocked molecular signals important for maintaining the health of motor neurons, the cells that carry messages from the brain to the muscles of the extremities. [Press release from Salk Institute for Biological Studies discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Disrupting Astrocyte–Neuron Lactate Transfer Persistently Reduces Conditioned Responses to Cocaine
By infusing an inhibitor of glycogen phosphorylase into the basolateral amygdala of rats, the authors report that disruption of astrocyte-derived lactate not only transiently impaired the acquisition of a cocaine-induced conditioned place preference but also persistently disrupted an established conditioning. [Mol Psychiatry] Full Article

Generation of Functional Human Serotonergic Neurons from Fibroblasts
Scientists identified and overexpressed key transcription factors to successfully generate human serotonergic neurons. They found that overexpressing the transcription factors NKX2.2, FEV, GATA2 and LMX1B in combination with ASCL1 and NGN2 directly and efficiently generated serotonergic neurons from human fibroblasts. [Mol Psychiatry] Abstract

Serotonin Promotes Development and Regeneration of Spinal Motor Neurons in Zebrafish
Investigators showed that, during development, diffuse serotonin promotes spinal motor neuron generation from pMN progenitor cells, leaving interneuron numbers unchanged. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Positioning of AMPA Receptor-Containing Endosomes Regulates Synapse Architecture
The authors used live-cell imaging in hippocampal neuron cultures to show that intracellular AMPA receptors are transported in Rab11-positive recycling endosomes, which frequently enter dendritic spines and depend on the microtubule and actin cytoskeleton. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

NEDD4-Mediated HSF1 Degradation Underlies α-Synucleinopathy
Researchers discovered aberrant heat shock transcription factor 1 (HSF1) degradation by aggregated α-synuclein (or α-synuclein-induced proteotoxic stress) in transfected neuroblastoma cells. HSF1 dysregulation via α-synuclein was confirmed by in vivo assessment of mouse and in situ studies of human specimens with α-synucleinopathy. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract | Full Article

Astroglial β-Arrestin1-Mediated Nuclear Signaling Regulates the Expansion of Neural Precursor Cells in Adult Hippocampus
Scientists showed that β-arrestin 1 (β-arr1) in dentate gyrus (DG) regulates neural precursor proliferation. β-arr1 knockout mice showed reduced neural precursor proliferation in subgranular zone which could be rescued by selective viral expression of β-arr1 but not its nuclear-function-deficient mutants under control of hGFAP promotor in DG. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Poly-L-Ornithine Promotes Preferred Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via ERK Signaling Pathway
Three biomaterial substrates poly-L-ornithine, poly-L-lysine and fibronectin were investigated for their effects on proliferation and differentiation of rat neural stem/progenitor cells, and the underlying mechanisms were also explored. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Enhancer Analysis Unveils Genetic Interactions between TLX and SOX2 in Neural Stem Cells and In Vivo Reprogramming
Investigators showed that a highly conserved cis-element within the Tlx locus functions to drive gene expression in neural stem cells. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article

Protein Palmitoylation Regulates Neural Stem Cell Differentiation by Modulation of EID1 Activity
Researchers showed that 2-bromopalmitate impaired the differentiation of neural stem cells (NSCs) into both neurons and glia and impaired NSC cell cycle exit. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Discovery of a Small Molecule that Enhances Astrocytogenesis by Activation of STAT3, SMAD1/5/8 and ERK1/2 via Induction of Cytokines in Neural Stem Cells
Researchers developed and screened small molecules that can modulate the fate of neural stem cells that are derived from rat fetal cortex. [ACS Chem Neurosci] Abstract

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Effects of Melatonin and Its Analogues on Neural Stem Cells
The authors summarize the beneficial effects of melatonin on neural stem cells and discuss the potential usage of melatonin and its derivatives or analogues in the treatment of central nervous system neurodegenerative diseases. [Mol Cell Endocrinol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
New Data with Brain-on-Chip for Neurodegenerative Disease from Collaborative Research by Emulate and Cedars-Sinai Presented at the Society for Neurosciences Annual Meeting
Emulate, Inc. announced that data on its Brain-on-Chip was presented by its collaborators at Cedars Sinai’s Board of Governors Regenerative Medicine Institute, who led the research and provided induced pluripotent stem cells from patient samples to enable this new approach to model the human brain microenvironment. [Press release from Emulate, Inc. discussing research presented at the Society for Neurosciences Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

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UofL Researchers Awarded Patents for Innovations to Improve Cancer Treatments, Bone Grafts and Therapies for Spinal Cord Damage
Technologies to improve bone grafts and cancer immunotherapies, protect lung tissue during radiation treatment, reverse neurological damage and improve recovery from spinal cord injury are among the patents issued to the University of Louisville Research Foundation recently. [University of Louisville School of Medicine] Press Release

Newron Pharmaceuticals Announces Planned Pivotal Trial Design for Sarizotan for Patients with Rett Syndrome, a Rare Neurodevelopmental Disease
Newron announced the study design and details of its planned pivotal trial for sarizotan for the treatment of patients with Rett syndrome, a rare neurodevelopmental disease. [Newron Pharmaceuticals S.p.A.] Download Press Release

Regulus Achieves All Research Milestones in Collaboration with Biogen to Identify microRNA Biomarkers for Multiple Sclerosis
Regulus Therapeutics Inc. announced that it has earned a fourth milestone payment in its collaboration with Biogen related to progress in the companies’ research collaboration to identify microRNAs as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis. [Regulus Therapeutics Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Asia 2015 Congress
December 18-21, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Pediatric Brain Cancer (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Stem Cell Research (University of California, Davis)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (Columbia University)

Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Neuroscience (University of Oxford)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

Early Stage Researcher – Neuroscience (Universität Bern)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

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