Volume 9.40 | Oct 21

Neural Cell News 9.40 October 21, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Stem Cell Treatment Lessens Impairments Caused by Dementia with Lewy Bodies
To understand how stem cell transplantation alleviated impairments, researchers examined the effects of the stem cells on brain pathology and circuitry connecting neurons. They found that functional improvements required the production of a specific growth factor – called brain-derived neurotrophic factor – by neural stem cells. [Press release from University of California, Irvine discussing online publication in Stem Cell Reports] Press Release | Full Article
Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Opposing Intrinsic Temporal Gradients Guide Neural Stem Cell Production of Varied Neuronal Fates
Investigators searched for factors that could regulate neural temporal fate by RNA-sequencing lineage-specific neuroblasts at various developmental times. They found that two RNA-binding proteins, IGF-II mRNA-binding protein and Syncrip, display opposing high-to-low and low-to-high temporal gradients with lineage-specific temporal dynamics. [Science] Abstract

Small Molecules Efficiently Reprogram Human Astroglial Cells into Functional Neurons
Investigators report that a combination of small molecules can reprogram human astrocytes in culture into fully functional neurons. They demonstrated that sequential exposure of human astrocytes to a cocktail of nine small molecules that inhibit glial but activate neuronal signaling pathways can successfully reprogram astrocytes into neurons in 8-10 days. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Press Release

Histone Deacetylase 6 Inhibition Enhances Oncolytic Viral Replication in Glioma
Researchers showed that histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) in tumor cells appears to alter the trafficking of post-entry oncolytic viruses from the nucleus toward lysosomes. In glioma cell lines and glioma-stem–like cells, HDAC6 inhibition by either pharmacologic or genetic means substantially increased replication of oncolytic herpes simplex virus type 1. [J Clin Invest] Abstract | Press Release

Neuron-Targeted Caveolin-1 Improves Molecular Signaling, Plasticity and Behavior Dependent on the Hippocampus in Adult and Aged Mice
Scientists assessed the impact of neuron-targeted overexpression of a membrane/lipid raft scaffold protein, caveolin-1 (via a synapsin promoter; SynCav1), in the hippocampus in vivo in adult and aged mice on biochemical, morphologic and behavioral changes. [Biol Psychiatry] Abstract | Press Release

Hoxa2 Selects Barrelette Neuron Identity and Connectivity in the Mouse Somatosensory Brainstem
Researchers found that ectopic Hoxa2 expression in dorsal PrV neurons was sufficient to attract whisker-related afferents, induce asymmetrical dendrite arbors, and allow ectopic barrelette map formation. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Functional Regulation of FoxO1 in Neural Stem Cell Differentiation
Investigators demonstrated that FoxO1 contributes to neuronal stem/progenitor cell fate decision through its cooperation with the Notch signaling pathway. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Axon Regeneration Is Regulated by Ets-C/EBP Transcription Complexes Generated by Activation of the cAMP/Ca2+ Signaling Pathways
The authors identified ETS-4 and CEBP-1, related to mammalian Ets and C/EBP, respectively, as transcriptional activators of svh-2 expression following axon injury. [PLoS Genet] Full Article

Reduced Protein Synthesis in Schizophrenia Patient-Derived Olfactory Cells
Researchers used discovery-based proteomics and targeted functional analyses to reveal reductions in 17 ribosomal proteins, with an 18% decrease in the total ribosomal signal intensity in schizophrenia-patient-derived olfactory neurosphere-derived cells. [Transl Psychiatry] Abstract

Increased Abundance of Translation Machinery in Stem Cell–Derived Neural Progenitor Cells from Four Schizophrenia Patients
The authors demonstrated perturbed global protein translation in human-induced pluripotent stem cell-derived forebrain neural progenitor cells from four schizophrenia patients relative to six unaffected controls. [Transl Psychiatry] Abstract

Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1 Infection Induces Synaptic Dysfunction in Cultured Cortical Neurons via GSK-3 Activation and Intraneuronal Amyloid-β Protein Accumulation
The authors demonstrated that in cultured mouse cortical neurons herpes simplex virus type 1 induced Ca2+-dependent activation of glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3. [Sci Rep] Full Article

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New Approaches for Direct Conversion of Patient Fibroblasts into Neural Cells
The authors discuss recent advances and key challenges regarding direct reprogramming of somatic cell types into diverse neural cells. [Brain Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
CWRU Researcher Lands Grant to Build Stealthy Brain Tumor Treatment
A Case Western Reserve University (CWRU) researcher has received a five-year, $2.82 million National Institutes of Health grant to make, in essence, stealth bombs that slip past the brain’s defenses to attack an incurable form of cancer. [Case Western Reserve University] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals Announces the Completion of Enrollment in its Phase II Expansion Study of VAL-083 in Refractory Glioblastoma Multiforme
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the 14-patient expansion cohort of its Phase II clinical study of VAL-083 (dianhydrogalactitol) in patients with refractory glioblastoma multiforme is now fully enrolled. [DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc.] Press Release

National Funding Backs UQ’s Multi-Pronged Approach on Dementia
Six University of Queensland researchers will receive a total of almost $3.6 million in federal funding over four years to continue their work on dementia. [University of Queensland] Press Release

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December 2-4, 2015
Dublin, Ireland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Stem Cell Research (University of California, Davis)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (Columbia University)

Research Associate – Drug Discovery (The Lieber Institute for Brain Development)

Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Neuroscience (University of Oxford)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

Early Stage Researcher – Neuroscience (Universität Bern)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

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