Volume 9.39 | Oct 14

Neural Cell News 9.39 October 14, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Fat Droplets Protect Stem Cells against Damage from Stress
Researchers studying fruit flies have identified a new mechanism that protects stem cells from damage caused by polyunsaturated fatty acids during oxidative stress. They used genetic techniques in fruit flies to find out how neural stem cells protect themselves from the dark side of polyunsaturated fatty acids. [Press release from The Francis Crick Institute discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Lack of Neuronal IFN-β-IFNAR Causes Lewy Body- and Parkinson’s Disease-Like Dementia
Researchers showed that lack of cytokine interferon-β (IFN-β) signaling causes spontaneous neurodegeneration in the absence of neurodegenerative disease-causing mutant proteins. Mice lacking Ifnb function exhibited motor and cognitive learning impairments with accompanying α-synuclein-containing Lewy bodies in the brain, as well as a reduction in dopaminergic neurons and defective dopamine signaling in the nigrostriatal region. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Directly Reprogrammed Human Neurons Retain Aging-Associated Transcriptomic Signatures and Reveal Age-Related Nucleocytoplasmic Defects
Scientists generated neurons from human donors across a broad range of ages, either by iPSC-based reprogramming and differentiation or by direct conversion into induced neurons (iNs). While iPSCs and derived neurons did not retain aging-associated gene signatures, iNs displayed age-specific transcriptional profiles and revealed age-associated decreases in the nuclear transport receptor RanBP17. [Cell Stem Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Adult Neural Stem Cells from the Subventricular Zone Give Rise to Reactive Astrocytes in the Cortex after Stroke
Using genetic tagging, scientists determined that subventricular zone neural stem cells give rise to neurospheres derived from the stroke-injured cortex. They demonstrated that these cells can be isolated from the cortex in two different models of stroke and from different stroke-lesioned cortical regions. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

EGFR Mutation Promotes Glioblastoma through Epigenome and Transcription Factor Network Remodeling
Through integrated epigenome and transcriptome analyses of cell lines, genotyped clinical samples, and TCGA data, the authors showed that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) mutations remodel the activated enhancer landscape of glioblastoma, promoting tumorigenesis through a SOX9 and FOXG1-dependent transcriptional regulatory network in vitro and in vivo. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Precursor Maintenance by Chondroitin Sulphate Glycosaminoglycans
Investigators showed that chondroitin sulfate glycosaminoglycans (CS-GAGs) detected by the monoclonal antibody 473HD are expressed by primary rat NG2-positive oligodendrocyte precursor cells and O4-positive immature oligodendrocytes. CS-GAGs become down-regulated with ongoing oligodendrocyte differentiation. [Glia] Abstract

Generation of Three-Dimensional Multiple Spheroid Model of Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Using Floating Liquid Marbles
Researchers exploited the floating liquid marble, a liquid droplet coated with hydrophobic powder and placed on a liquid bath. Floating liquid marbles allowed olfactory ensheathing cells (OECs) to freely associate and interact to produce OEC spheroids with uniform shapes and sizes. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Synergy of Endothelial and Neural Progenitor Cells from Adipose-Derived Stem Cells to Preserve Neurovascular Structures in Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Scientists differentiated adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs) toward the progenitor of endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) and neural precursor cells (NPCs) via microenvironmental induction and investigated the protective effect by transplanting ASCs, EPCs, NPCs, or a combination of EPCs and NPCs into neonatal hypoxic-ischemic injured rat pups. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Beclin-1 Deficiency Alters Autophagosome Formation, Lysosome Biogenesis and Enhances Neuronal Vulnerability of HT22 Hippocampal Cells
Researchers examined the potential role of Beclin-1 in an autophagic response in hippocampal HT22 neurons challenged with rapamycin, investigated the expression of several gene products involved in the autophagic pathway, and checked the effects of Beclin-1 knockdown on neuronal death induced by AAS. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Protective Effects of Isolecanoric Acid on Neurodegenerative In Vitro Models
Using two different molecular models, treatment with L-BMAA for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and rotenone for Parkinson´s disease, the effect of isolecanoric acid, a natural product isolated from a fungal culture, was evaluated. Pre-treatment with this molecule caused inhibition of GSK3β and CK1, and a decrease in oxidative stress, mitochondrial damage, apoptosis and cell death. [Neuropharmacology] Abstract

SARM1, Not MyD88, Mediates TLR7/TLR9-Induced Apoptosis in Neurons
The authors identified the mechanism responsible for TLR7/TLR9-mediated neuronal apoptosis. TLR-induced apoptosis required endosomal localization of TLRs but was independent of MyD88 signaling. Instead, apoptosis required the TLR adaptor molecule SARM1, which localized to the mitochondria following TLR activation and was associated with mitochondrial accumulation in neurites. [J Immunol] Abstract | Press Release

Adenoviral Vector Carrying Glial Cell-Derived Neurotrophic Factor for Direct Gene Therapy in Comparison with Human Umbilical Cord Blood Cell-Mediated Therapy of Spinal Cord Injury in Rat
Investigators examined the efficacy of glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) delivered using an adenoviral vector (AdV-GDNF) and human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (UCB-MCs)+AdV-GDNF therapy by conducting behavioral tests on the animals and morphometric studies on the spinal cord, performing immunofluorescence analyses on glial cells, investigating the survival and migration potential of UCB-MCs, and evaluating the expression of the recombinant GDNF gene. [Spinal Cord] Abstract | Press Release

Neural Supplements For High-Quality Neural Cell Cultures
Interactions of Iron, Dopamine and Neuromelanin Pathways in Brain Aging and Parkinson’s Disease
There are several interrelated mechanisms involving iron, dopamine, and neuromelanin in neurons. Neuromelanin accumulates during aging and is the catecholamine-derived pigment of the dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra and norepinephrine neurons of the locus coeruleus, the two neuronal populations most targeted in Parkinson’s disease. [Prog Neurobiol] Abstract

Astrocytes, Therapeutic Targets for Neuroprotection and Neurorestoration in Ischemic Stroke
The authors discuss functions of astrocytes and astrocyte-mediated events during stroke and recovery. They provide an overview of approaches on how to reduce the detrimental effects and amplify the beneficial effects of astrocytes on neuroprotection and on neurorestoration post stroke, which may lead to novel and clinically relevant therapies for stroke. [Prog Neurobiol] Abstract

Purinergic Receptors in Embryonic and Adult Neurogenesis
The authors discuss the available data on purinergic P2 receptor expression and function during brain development and in the neurogenic zones of the adult brain, as well as the insights based on the use of in vitro stem cell cultures. [Neuropharmacology] Abstract

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Treatment Effects Maintained over Five Years in Majority of Patients with Relapsing Remitting Multiple Sclerosis who Received Genzyme’s Lemtrada® (Alemtuzumab) in Clinical Trials
Genzyme announced positive new five-year investigational data from the extension study of Lemtrada® (alemtuzumab) for patients with relapsing remitting multiple sclerosis. [Press release from Genzyme Corporation discussing research presented at the 31st Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Barcelona] Press Release

Genentech’s Ocrelizumab First Investigational Medicine to Show Positive Pivotal Study Results in Both Relapsing and Primary Progressive Forms of Multiple Sclerosis
Genentech announced data from three positive, pivotal Phase III studies of ocrelizumab in people with relapsing multiple sclerosis and primary progressive multiple sclerosis. [Press release from Genentech, Inc. discussing research presented at the 31st Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Barcelona] Press Release

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UCL and Takeda Announce a New Research Partnership to Identify Novel Therapeutic Targets for Neurodegenerative Diseases
University College London (UCL) and Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited announced a new research collaboration to identify and validate novel target genes for the treatment of neurodegenerative disease. This collaboration will focus on mechanistic approaches for the identification of genes or signaling pathways that modify neurodegenerative disease processes affecting neuronal health. [University College London] Press Release

Cancer Research UK Launches £100 Million Grand Challenges to Tackle the Most Important Questions in Cancer
Cancer Research UK has launched Grand Challenges – the biggest and most ambitious cancer grants in the world – which aim to overcome the greatest barriers standing in the way of beating cancer. The £100 million investment will revolutionize how we diagnose, prevent and treat cancer by uniting teams of the best scientists around the world to come up with answers to crucial questions about how to save more lives from cancer. [Cancer Research UK] Press Release

Ed Boyden and Nachum Ulanovsky Receive Young Investigator Award
The Society for Neuroscience will present the Young Investigator Award to Ed Boyden, PhD, of the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, and Nachum Ulanovksy, PhD, of the Weizmann Institute of Science. [The Society for Neuroscience (EurekAlert!)] Press Release
Fragment of Rat Brain Simulated in Supercomputer
A controversial European neuroscience project that aims to simulate the human brain in a supercomputer has published its first major result: a digital imitation of circuitry in a sandgrain-sized chunk of rat brain. The work models some 31,000 virtual brain cells connected by roughly 37 million synapses. [Nature News] Editorial

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NEW European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO) Asia 2015 Congress
December 18-21, 2015
Singapore, Singapore

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Faculty Position – Neuroscience (Columbia University)

Research Associate – Drug Discovery (The Lieber Institute for Brain Development)

Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Neuroscience (University of Oxford)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

Early Stage Researcher – Neuroscience (Universität Bern)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute)

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