Volume 9.38 | Oct 7

Neural Cell News 9.38 October 7, 2015
Neural Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
Cell Therapy News on Facebook   NCN on Twitter
Somatic Mutation in Single Human Neurons Tracks Developmental and Transcriptional History
Scientists surveyed the landscape of somatic single-nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the human brain. They identified thousands of somatic SNVs by single-cell sequencing of 36 neurons from the cerebral cortex of three normal individuals. Unlike germline and cancer SNVs, which are often caused by errors in DNA replication, neuronal mutations appear to reflect damage during active transcription. [Science] Abstract | Press Release
Learn more: New STEMdiff™ Differentiation and Maturation Kits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Balance of Id3 and E47 Determines Neural Stem/Precursor Cell Differentiation into Astrocytes
Investigators showed that genetic depletion of the transcriptional regulator Id3 decreased the number of astrocytes generated from subventricular zone-derived adult neural stem/precursor cells in the cortical lesion area after traumatic brain injury. [EMBO J] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

PKA Phosphorylation of NCLX Reverses Mitochondrial Calcium Overload and Depolarization, Promoting Survival of PINK1-Deficient Dopaminergic Neurons
Researchers found that loss of PTEN-induced putative kinase 1 (PINK1) function, implicated in Parkinson disease, inhibits the mitochondrial Na+/Ca2+ exchanger (NCLX), leading to impaired mitochondrial Ca2+ extrusion. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Transplantation of Unique Subpopulation of Fibroblasts, Muse Cells, Ameliorates Experimental Stroke Possibly via Robust Neuronal Differentiation
Muse cells spontaneously and promptly committed to neural/neuronal-lineage cells when cocultured with stroke brain slices. Muse-transplanted stroke rats exhibited significant improvements in neurological and motor functions compared to control groups at chronic days 70 and 84, without a reduction in the infarct size. [Stem Cells] Abstract | Press Release

PDGFR-β Plays a Key Role in the Ectopic Migration of Neuroblasts in Cerebral Stroke
Scientists showed that CXCL12, a potent chemoattractant for CXCR4-expressing neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs), was upregulated in the ischemic lesion of N-PRβ-KO mice. Furthermore, integrin α3 intrinsically expressed in NSPCs that critically mediates extracellular matrix-dependent migration, was upregulated in N-PRβ-KO after middle cerebral-arterial occlusion. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Crestospheres: Long-Term Maintenance of Multipotent, Premigratory Neural Crest Stem Cells
Investigators report conditions that enable maintenance of neuroepithelial “crestospheres” that self-renew and retain multipotency for weeks. Moreover, under differentiation conditions, these cells can form multiple derivatives in vitro and in vivo after transplantation into chick embryos. [Stem Cell Reports]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Human and Murine Tissue-Engineered Colon Exhibit Diverse Neuronal Subtypes and Can Be Populated by Enteric Nervous System Progenitor Cells when Donor Colon Is Aganglionic
The authors hypothesized that tissue-engineered colon (TEC) might contain a diverse population of enteric neuronal subtypes, and that aganglionic TEC can be populated by neurons and glia when supplemented with enteric nervous system progenitor cells in the form of neurospheres. [Tissue Eng Part A]
Abstract | Press Release

Microglial JAK/STAT3 Pathway Activity Directly Impacts Astrocyte and Spinal Neuron Characteristics
Using an in vitro paradigm researchers assessed the impact of microglial JAK/STAT3 activity on functional characteristics of astrocytes and spinal cord neurons. [J Neurochem] Abstract

Circadian Clock Genes Are Essential for Normal Adult Neurogenesis, Differentiation, and Fate Determination
The authors provide insight into how cell autonomous circadian clocks and clock genes regulate adult neural stem cells with implications for treating neurodegenerative disorders and impaired brain functions by manipulating neurogenesis. [PLoS One] Full Article

High Pressure Promotes Alpha-Synuclein Aggregation in Cultured Neuronal Cells
Scientists investigated the effect of hydrostatic pressure on the aggregation of α-synuclein in cultured neuronal cells. They found that hydrostatic pressure is associated with a transition from monomeric to higher order α-synuclein aggregates. [FEBS Lett] Abstract

Neural Supplements For High-Quality Neural Cell Cultures
Adult Mammalian Neural Stem Cells and Neurogenesis: Five Decades Later
The authors review recent progress and focus on questions related to adult mammalian neural stem cells that also apply to other somatic stem cells. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract

Comparison of Human Primary with Human iPS Cell-Derived Dopaminergic Neuron Grafts in the Rat Model for Parkinson’s Disease
The authors summarize and compare the efficacy of human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPS) cell-derived dopaminergic (DA) neuron grafts to restore normal behaviour in a rat model for Parkinson’s disease with that of human fetal primary DA neurons. [Stem Cell Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Commence Bio to Present at 2015 Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa
Commence Bio, Inc., a biotechnology company focused on the development of MSC1 and MSC2 cellular immunotherapy platforms for cancer and inflammatory diseases, announced that Thomas Isett, Chief Executive Officer and Co-Founder, will present a corporate overview. [Press release from Commence Bio discussing research presented at the 2015 Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa (SCMOM), La Jolla] Press Release

New Analysis Suggests Aubagio® (Teriflunomide) Slows Brain Atrophy in People with Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Genzyme announced that magnetic resonance imaging data from the Phase III TEMSO study demonstrate that Aubagio® (teriflunomide) significantly slowed brain volume loss (or atrophy) vs. placebo over two years in people with relapsing multiple sclerosis. [Press release from Genzyme Corporation discussing research to be presented at the 31st Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Barcelona] Press Release

Acorda to Present New rHIgM22 and AMPYRA® (Dalfampridine) Data
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. will present new analyses of pharmacokinetic data from a Phase I clinical trial of rHIgM22, a remyelinating antibody being studied for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, and five-year post-marketing safety data on AMPYRA® (dalfampridine) extended release tablets. [Press release from Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 31st Congress of the European Committee for Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS), Barcelona] Press Release

From our sponsor: Induce neural progenitor cells faster and more effectively. Watch the technical video.
Johns Hopkins, Kavli Foundation Create New Institute Dedicated to Study of How the Brain Works
The Kavli Foundation and its university partners announced the founding of three new neuroscience institutes, including one at Johns Hopkins. The new Kavli Neuroscience Discovery Institute at The Johns Hopkins University, expected to launch in early 2016, will bring an interdisciplinary group of researchers together to investigate the workings of the brain. [Johns Hopkins University] Press Release

SanBio Inc. Begins Recruiting Patients to Test Regenerative Treatment for Traumatic Brain Injury
SanBio Inc. announced that it has opened patient recruitment for its Phase II clinical trial study to evaluate the clinical efficacy and safety of its proprietary cell therapy following traumatic brain injury. [SanBio Inc. (Business Wire)] Press Release

Kadimastem Submitted Pre-IND Package to the FDA
Kadimastem submitted the documents and comprehensive information package to the FDA, in preparation for a Pre-IND meeting. In the meeting the development of the company’s cell-based therapy for the treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis will be discussed, as well as the outline of Kadimastem’s clinical trial. [Kadimastem] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 2nd Matrix Biology Ireland (MBI) 2015
December 2-4, 2015
Dublin, Ireland

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Research Associate – Drug Discovery (The Lieber Institute for Brain Development)

NEW Faculty Position – Astrocyte Biology (Mayo Clinic)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Scientist – Neuroscience (University of Oxford)

Assistant/Associate/Full Professor – Biomedical Engineering (Worcester Polytechnic Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

Early Stage Researcher – Neuroscience (Universität Bern)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute)

Recruit Top Talent: Reach more than 60,000 potential candidates by posting your organization’s career opportunities on the Connexon Creative Job Board at no cost.

Have we missed an important article or publication in Neural Cell News? Click here to submit!

Comments or suggestions? Submit your feedback here
Learn more about Neural Cell News: Archives | Events | Contact Us