Volume 9.36 | Sep 23

Neural Cell News 9.36 September 23, 2015
Neural Cell News
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A Barrier against Brain Stem Cell Aging
Neural stem cells generate new neurons throughout life in the mammalian brain. However, with advancing age the potential for regeneration in the brain dramatically declines. Scientists identified a novel mechanism of how neural stem cells stay relatively free of aging-induced damage. [Press release from the University of Zurich discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Spatial Mapping of Juxtacrine Axo-Glial Interactions Identifies Novel Molecules in Peripheral Myelination
To identify novel molecules in axo-glial interactions, scientists modified the ‘pseudopodia’ sub-fractionation system and isolated the projections that glia extend when they receive juxtacrine signals from axons. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Human Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Constructs for Predicting Neural Toxicity
Human embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells, endothelial cells, mesenchymal stem cells, and microglia/macrophage precursors were combined on chemically defined polyethylene glycol hydrogels and cultured in serum-free medium to model cellular interactions within the developing brain. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

MicroRNA-Based Conversion of Human Fibroblasts into Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons
Investigators describe a stepwise protocol for the generation of medium spiny neurons by direct neuronal conversion of human fibroblasts in 30 days. They provide descriptions of cellular behaviors during reprogramming and crucial steps involved in gene delivery, cell adhesion and culturing conditions that promote cell survival. [Nat Protoc] Abstract

Suppressor of Fused Is Critical for Maintenance of Neuronal Progenitor Identity during Corticogenesis
Researchers showed that suppressor of fused (Sufu) controls projection neuron specification by maintaining the identity of neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the embryonic neocortex. Deletion of Sufu in NPCs of the E10.5 mouse neocortex led to improper specification of progenitors and a reduction in intermediate progenitors during corticogenesis. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Electrospun SF/PLCL Nanofibrous Membrane: A Potential Scaffold for Retinal Progenitor Cell Proliferation and Differentiation
Scientists investigated the effects of blended electrospun nanofibrous membranes of silk fibroin (SF) and poly(L-lactic acid-co-ε-caprolactone) (PLCL), a novel scaffold, on the biological behaviour of retinal progenitor cells in vitro. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Energy Blockers Bromopyruvate and Lonidamine Lead GL15 Glioblastoma Cells to Death by Different p53-Dependent Routes
The effects produced by the energy blockers bromopyruvate (3BP) and lonidamine (LND) and the underlying biochemical mechanisms were investigated in GL15 glioblastoma cells. 3BP exerted early effects compared to LND, even though both drugs lead cells to death but by different routes. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Small Molecule Agonists of Mammalian Diaphanous-Related (mDia) Formins Reveal an Effective Glioblastoma Anti-Invasion Strategy
The authors used the formin inhibitor SMIFH2 and mDia agonists IMM-01/-02 and mDia2-DAD peptides which disrupt autoinhibition to examine the roles of mDia inactivation verses activation in glioblastoma cell migration and invasion in vitro, and in an ex vivo brain slice invasion model. [Mol Biol Cell] Abstract | Press Release

E804 Induces Growth Arrest, Differentiation and Apoptosis of Glioblastoma Cells by Blocking Stat3 Signaling
Researchers tested E804, the commercially available indirubin derivatives, against U251 and U87 glioblastoma cells. Treatment with E804 significantly inhibited the growth of human glioblastoma cells lines via induction of differentiation and apoptosis. [J Neurooncol] Abstract

Modification of Aquaporin Expression in Response to Fenretinide-Induced Transdifferentiation of ARPE-19 Cells into Neuronal-Like Cells
The authors investigated the modifications of aquaporin expression in ARPE-19 cells in response to fenretinide-induced transdifferentiation into neuronal-like cells. [Acta Ophthalmol] Abstract

RNA Interference Machinery-Mediated Gene Regulation in Mouse Adult Neural Stem Cells
Investigators showed that the RNA interference machinery regulates Doublecortin levels and is associated with chromatin in differentiating adult neural progenitors. [BMC Neurosci] Full Article

Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
Disturbed Macro-Connectivity in Schizophrenia Linked to Oligodendrocyte Dysfunction: From Structural Findings to Molecules
Schizophrenia is a severe psychiatric disorder with multi-factorial characteristics. A number of findings have shown disrupted synaptic connectivity in schizophrenia patients and emerging evidence suggests that this results from dysfunctional oligodendrocytes, the cells responsible for myelinating axons in white matter to promote neuronal conduction. [npj Schizophrenia] Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Genervon GM604 Reduced TDP-43 Protein Aggregates and Slowed Down ALS Progression
The results of Genervon’s Phase IIA clinical trial of GM604 in ALS patients indicated that GM604 has the ability to modulate multiple protein biomarkers, including the above normal TDP-43 back to their normal ranges, thus restoring homeostasis. [Genervon Biopharmaceuticals LLC] Press Release

Horwitz Prize Awarded for Research Revealing How the Brain Is Wired
Columbia University awarded the 2015 Louisa Gross Horwitz Prize to S. Lawrence Zipursky, PhD, for discovering a molecular identification system that helps neurons to navigate and wire the brain. [Columbia University] Press Release

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Canadian Election Spotlights Scientists’ Frustrations
Canadians will head to the polls on October 19th, in a federal election that many scientists hope will mark a turning point after years of declining research budgets and allegations of government censorship. Although science has not emerged as a top issue during the campaign, researchers are fighting to make their concerns heard. [Nature News] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Society for Immunotherapy of Cancer (SITC) 2015
November 4-8, 2015
National Harbor, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Faculty Position – Neuroscience (RIKEN Brain Science Institute)

NEW Early Stage Researcher – Neuroscience (Universität Bern)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

Research Fellow – Cnidarian Neural Development (University of Bergen)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute)

Director – Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (Duke University)

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