Volume 9.35 | Sep 16

Neural Cell News 9.35 September 16, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Lhx2 Regulates the Timing of β-Catenin-Dependent Cortical Neurogenesis
Scientists report that Lhx2 regulates the cortex size by maintaining the cortical progenitor proliferation and delaying the initiation of neurogenesis. The loss of Lhx2 in cortical progenitors results in precocious radial glia differentiation and a temporal shift of cortical neurogenesis. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Retinoic Acid Induces Ubiquitination-Resistant RIP140/LSD1 Complex to Fine-Tune Pax6 Gene in Neuronal Differentiation
Investigators reveal a new retinoic acid (RA)-induced gene repressive mechanism that modulates the abundance, enzyme quality and recruitment of histone modifier lysine-specific demethylase 1 (LSD1) to neuronal regulator Pax6, which provides a homeostatic control for RA induction of neuronal differentiation. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Proton Beam Radiation Induces DNA Damage and Cell Apoptosis in Glioma Stem Cells through Reactive Oxygen Species
By utilizing patient-derived glioma stem cells (GSCs), researchers showed that proton radiation generates greater cytotoxicity in GSCs than x-ray photon radiation. Compared with photon radiation, proton beam irradiation induces more single and double strand DNA breaks, less H2AX phosphorylation, increased Chk2 phosphorylation, and reduced cell cycle recovery from G2 arrest, leading to caspase-3 activation, PARP cleavage, and cell apoptosis. [Sci Rep] Full Article

CEND1 and NEUROGENIN2 Reprogram Mouse Astrocytes and Embryonic Fibroblasts to Induced Neural Precursors and Differentiated Neurons
Investigators explored the effect of CEND1 and NEUROG2 on reprogramming of mouse cortical astrocytes and embryonic fibroblasts. Forced expression of CEND1, NEUROG2, or both resulted in acquisition of induced neuronal cells expressing subtype-specific markers, while long-term live-cell imaging highlighted the existence of two different modes of neuronal trans-differentiation. [Stem Cell Reports] Full Article

Effect of Cholesterol Reduction on Receptor Signaling in Neurons
Researchers explored the effects of the decrease in cholesterol on neuronal cell function using GT1-7 hypothalamic cells subjected to cholesterol depletion in vitro using three independent methods: exposure to methyl-beta-cyclodextrin, treatment with the HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor simvastatin and shRNA-mediated knockdown of SREBP2. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Hippocampal PPARδ Overexpression or Activation Represses Stress-Induced Depressive Behaviors and Enhances Neurogenesis
In vivo or in vitro studies showed that both overexpression and activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor δ (PPARδ) enhanced proliferation or differentiation of neural stem cells in the hippocampi of mice. [Int J Neuropsychopharmacol] Full Article

Transdifferentiation-Induced Neural Stem Cells Promote Recovery of Middle Cerebral Artery Stroke Rats
Scientists produced transdifferentiated induced neural stem cells (iNSCs) by conditional overexpressing Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. They expanded readily in vitro and expressed NSC mRNA profile and protein markers. These iNSCs differentiated into mature astrocytes, neurons and oligodendrocytes in vitro. [PLoS One] Full Article

Phenytoin Enhances the Phosphorylation of EGFR and FGFR in the Subventricular Zone and Promotes the Proliferation of Neural Precursor Cells and Oligodendrocyte Differentiation
Scientists determined the cell lineage and cell fate of ventricular-subventricular zone neural progenitors expanded by phenytoin, as well as the effects of this drug on epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)/fibroblast growth factor (FGFR) phosphorylation. [Eur J Neurosci] Abstract

Morphine Preconditioning Downregulates MicroRNA-134 Expression against Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injuries in Cultured Neurons of Mice
Morphine preconditioning induces neuroprotection in neurons, but it remains uncertain whether microRNA-134 is involved in morphine preconditioning against oxygen-glucose deprivation-induced injuries in primary cortical neurons of mice. The authors examined this issue. [J Neurosurg Anesthesiol] Abstract

Involvement of Caspase-3/PTEN Signaling Pathway in Isoflurane-Induced Decrease of Self-Renewal Capacity of Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells
Investigators used in vitro neural precursor cells (NPCs) cultures to test whether caspase-3 and its downstream signaling effectors were involved in isoflurane-induced impairment of the self-renewal capacity of hippocampal NPCs. [Brain Res] Abstract

Tanshinone IIA, a Multiple Target Neuroprotectant, Promotes Caveolae-Dependent Neuronal Differentiation
Tanshinone IIA, a multiple target neuroprotectant, was demonstrated to promote dose-dependent neuronal differentiation in three cell models of immortalized C17.2 neuronal stem cells, rat embryonic cortical neural stem cells and rat PC12 pheochromocytoma cells. [Eur J Pharmacol] Abstract

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Reprogramming, Behind the Scenes: Noncanonical Neural Stem Cell Signaling Pathways Reveal New, Unseen Regulators of Tissue Plasticity with Therapeutic Implications
Recent findings involving reprogramming by genetic means and soluble factors with well-studied downstream signaling mechanisms, including signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 and hairy and enhancer of split 3, shed new light into the molecular mechanisms that might be involved. The authors examine the appropriateness of common culture systems and their ability to reveal unusual signal transduction pathways that actually operate in vivo. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

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International Stem Cell Corporation Announces Next Phase of Research Collaboration with Rohto Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. of Japan
International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCO) announced that it had entered into the second phase of the existing research agreement with Rohto Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. After successfully completing preliminary studies of ISCO’s human parthenogenetic neural stem cells, Rohto acknowledged that ISCO’s proprietary cells demonstrate consistent high quality and are suitable for further use in Rohto’s research. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

Dr. Frank Longo Wins Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation’s Inaugural Melvin R. Goodes Prize for Researchers Working in Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery
Physician-scientist Frank M. Longo, MD, PhD, has been named the inaugural winner of the Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation’s Melvin R. Goodes Prize for Excellence in Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery, the first prize to specifically recognize researchers working in novel and promising areas of Alzheimer’s drug discovery. [Alzheimer’s Drug Discovery Foundation (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

USC Stem Cell Researcher Justin Ichida Receives $300,000 Muscular Dystrophy Association Grant
Ten percent of all patients with two neurodegenerative diseases — frontotemperal dementia and amyolateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease — possess a mutation in the same gene. Justin Ichida, PhD, assistant professor of Stem Cell Biology and Regenerative Medicine, has received a Muscular Dystrophy Association research grant totaling $300,000 over three years to determine how this mutated gene contributes to ALS. [University of Southern California] Press Release

NIH Awards $7.5 Million Grant for AgeneBio HOPE4MCI Phase III Clinical Trial to Delay the Onset of Alzheimer’s Dementia
AgeneBio announced that its HOPE4MCI Phase III clinical trial has received support from the National Institutes of Health (NIH). [AgeneBio, Inc.] Press Release

AZTherapies Commences Phase III Pivotal Trial – for ALZT-OP1 in Early Alzheimer’s Disease
AZTherapies, Inc. announced that it is commencing a Phase III clinical study for early Alzheimer’s disease, after having received a special protocol assessment agreement notice from US Food and Drug Administration. [AZTherapies, Inc. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

EnGeneIC Ltd. to Initiate U.S. Phase I Clinical Study Using Targeted EDV™ Nanocells to Treat Advanced Glioma Patients
EnGeneIC Ltd. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration has accepted the company’s investigational new drug application for using (EGFR)-EDVs loaded with doxorubicin in patients with recurrent glioma. [EnGeneIC Ltd. (PR Newswire Association LLC)] Press Release

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NEW Global Cancer Summit – 2015
November 18-20, 2015
Bangalore, India

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NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Modifiers (Van Andel Research Institute)

NEW Research Fellow – Cnidarian Neural Development (University of Bergen)

Postdoctoral Position – Brain Tumor Research (Research Institute of the McGill University Health Centre)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Injury Research (Indiana University-Purdue University)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimmunology (Brain and Spine Institute)

Director – Duke Institute for Brain Sciences (Duke University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells and Non-Neoplastic Neural Stem Cells (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

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