Volume 9.30 | Aug 12

Neural Cell News 9.30 August 12, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Chemical-Only Cell Reprogramming Transforms Human and Mouse Skin Cells into Neurons
Two labs in China have independently succeeded in transforming skin cells into neurons using only a cocktail of chemicals, with one group using human cells from healthy individuals and Alzheimer’s patients, and the other group using cells from mice. [Press release from Cell Press (EurekAlert!) discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Full Article 1 | Graphical Abstract 1 | Full Article 2 | Graphical Abstract 2
Watch Webinar: Neuronal Phenotyping of an iPS Cell Model of Rett Syndrome
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Specific Responses of Human Hippocampal Neurons Are Associated with Better Memory
Scientists explored whether human hippocampal neurons can demonstrate the ability to discriminate between overlapping representations and whether this selectivity could be directly related to memory performance. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Age-Dependent TDP-43-Mediated Motor Neuron Degeneration Requires GSK3, hat-trick, and xmas-2
Investigators used a mosaic approach to study age-dependent motor neuron loss in the adult fly leg where it is possible to resolve single motor axons, NMJs and active zones, and perform rapid forward genetic screens. [Curr Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Sustained Pax6 Expression Generates Primate-Like Basal Radial Glia in Developing Mouse Neocortex
Researchers demonstrated that sustaining Pax6 expression selectively in basal progenitor (BP)-genic apical radial glia and their BP progeny of embryonic mouse neocortex suffices to induce primate-like progenitor behavior. [PLoS Biol] Full Article | Press Release

Ultrastructural Analysis of Adult Mouse Neocortex Comparing Aldehyde Perfusion with Cryo Fixation
Cryo fixation is thought to give a truer representation of biological structures. Investigators used rapid, high-pressure freezing on adult mouse neocortex to quantify the extent to which these two fixation methods differ in terms of their preservation of the different cellular compartments, and the arrangement of membranes at the synapse and around blood vessels. [Elife] Full Article | Press Release

Human Epidermal Neural Crest Stem Cells as a Source of Schwann Cells
Scientists showed that highly pure populations of human Schwann cells can be derived rapidly and in a straightforward way, without the need for genetic manipulation, from human epidermal neural crest stem cells present in the bulge of hair follicles. [Development] Abstract | Press Release

Sialylation of Neurites Inhibits Complement-Mediated Macrophage Removal in a Human Macrophage-Neuron Co-Culture System
Researchers co-cultured macrophages derived from human THP1 monocytes and neurons derived from human induced pluripotent stem cells, to study the role of the complement system in a human model. [Glia] Abstract

Fluoride-Induced Neuron Apoptosis and Expressions of Inflammatory Factors by Activating Microglia in Rat Brain
Investigators found that apoptosis of neurons in fluoride-treated rat brain increased and terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling-positive immunofluorescence increased with increasing fluoride concentrations. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Adiponectin Receptor-Mediated Signaling Ameliorates Cerebral Cell Damage and Regulates the Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells at High Glucose Concentrations: An In Vivo and In Vitro Study
The authors investigated adiponectin receptor (AdipoR)-mediated signaling in vivo using a high-fat diet and in vitro using neural stem cells. They showed that AdipoR1 protects cell damage and synaptic dysfunction in the mouse brain in hyperglycemia. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

NF-κB Signaling Is Involved in the Effects of Intranasally Engrafted Human Neural Stem Cells on Neurofunctional Improvements in Neonatal Rat Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy
Studies found that neural stem cell therapy benefits hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy rats; however, the mechanisms underlying are still unclear. Scientists investigated the efficacy and molecular events of human embryonic neural stem cells in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic rats. [CNS Neurosci Ther] Abstract

Cdon Promotes Neural Crest Migration by Regulating N-Cadherin Localization
Researchers demonstrated a novel role for the putative Sonic hedgehog receptor and cell adhesion regulator, cdon, in zebrafish neural crest migration. cdon is expressed in developing premigratory neural crest cells but is downregulated once the cells become migratory. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Free Wallchart from Nature Reviews Neuroscience on Modeling Neurological Disease with iPS Cells
Alzheimer’s in 3D Culture: Challenges and Perspectives
The authors discuss the progress and current limitations of Alzheimer’s disease mouse models and human stem cell models as well as explore the breakthroughs of three-dimensional (3D) cell culture systems. [Bioessays] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Einstein Receives $1.2 Million from New York State for Spinal Cord Injury Research
Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine and Montefiore Health System have received a $1.2 million grant from New York State to advance their promising technology for treating paralysis and other effects of spinal cord injuries. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine] Press Release

Bold New Brain Research in Neuroengineering, Brain-Inspired Design, and Individuality
To support potentially transformative research in neural and cognitive systems, the National Science Foundation has awarded 16 grants to multidisciplinary teams from across the United States. [The National Science Foundation] Press Release

U.S. Army and Helius Medical Technologies Announce Launch of Phase III Traumatic Brain Injury Clinical Trial
Helius Medical Technologies and the U.S. Army Medical Research and Materiel Command announced the launch of a Phase III clinical trial to investigate the safety and effectiveness of the Portable Neuromodulation Stimulator 4.0 device, a non-invasive brain stimulation device that is being developed for the treatment of balance disorder in patients with mild-to-moderate traumatic brain injury. [Helius Medical Technologies] Press Release

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December 3-4, 2015
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Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Glioblastoma Stem-Like Cells and Non-Neoplastic Neural Stem Cells (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience/Brain Repair/Stroke Recovery (University of Ottawa)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Chemist/Biochemist/Nanotechnologist (Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Development and Cancer (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow/Research Assistant Professor – Neurodegenerative Diseases (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)

PhD Student – Biology of Brain Metastasis (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas)

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