Volume 9.29 | Aug 5

Neural Cell News 9.29 August 5, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
An Alarm Clock for Dormant Brain Stem Cells
Scientists generated a molecular profile of neural stem cells from the brains of mice. They discovered that a chemical messenger called interferon-gamma awakens certain neural stem cells from dormancy and induces their activation. [Press release from the German Cancer Research Center discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Glial Glycolysis Is Essential for Neuronal Survival in Drosophila
Using the example of the Drosophila brain, the authors addressed how sugar is shuttled across the barrier to nurture neurons. They showed that glial cells of the blood-brain barrier specifically take up sugars and that their metabolism relies on glycolysis, which, surprisingly, is dispensable in neurons. [Cell Metab]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Olfactory Stem Cells Reveal MOCOS as a New Player in Autism Spectrum Disorders
Scientists report on molybdenum cofactor sulfurase (MOCOS), an enzyme involved in purine metabolism, as a newly identified player in autism spectrum disorders (ASD). They found in adult nasal olfactory stem cells of 11 adults with ASD that MOCOS is downregulated in most of them when compared with 11 age- and gender-matched control adults without any neuropsychiatric disorders. [Mol Psych] Full Article | Press Release

Activating Endogenous Neural Precursor Cells Using Metformin Leads to Neural Repair and Functional Recovery in a Model of Childhood Brain Injury
Investigators found that metformin administration activates endogenous neural precursor cells (NPCs), expanding the size of the NPC pool and promoting NPC migration and differentiation in the injured neonatal brain in a hypoxia-ischemia injury model. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article

Transcriptional Profiling of Hypoxic Neural Stem Cells Identifies Calcineurin-NFATc4 Signaling as a Major Regulator of Neural Stem Cell Biology
Scientists performed gene set enrichment analysis of microarray datasets from hypoxic versus normoxic neural stem cells (NSCs) with the aim of identifying pathways and transcription factors (TFs) that are activated under oxygen concentrations mimicking normal brain tissue microenvironment. Integration of TF target and pathway enrichment analysis identified the calcium-regulated TF NFATc4 as a major candidate to regulate hypoxic NSC functions. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

12-Deoxyphorbols Promote Adult Neurogenesis by Inducing Neural Progenitor Cell Proliferation via PKC Activation
Researchers performed in vitro and in vivo approaches to determine neural progenitor cell proliferation to understand whether activation of kinases of the PKC family facilitates neurogenesis in the adult brain. [Int J Neuropsychopharmacol] Abstract

Acidic FGF Promotes Neurite Outgrowth of Cortical Neurons and Improves Neuroprotective Effect in a Cerebral Ischemic Rat Model
Researchers examined the neuroprotective effect of acidic fibroblast growth factor (aFGF) on cortical neuron-glial cultures under oxygen glucose deprivation-induced cell damage and investigated whether epidural application of slow released aFGF could improve benefit on ischemic stroke injury in conscious rats. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Connective-Tissue Growth Factor (CTGF/CCN2) Induces Astrogenesis and Fibronectin Expression of Embryonic Neural Cells In Vitro
Investigators indicated that CTGF is a potent inductor of gliogenesis during development. They showed that in vitro addition of recombinant CTGF protein to an embryonic mouse neural precursor cell culture increased the number of GFAP- and GFAP/Nestin-positive cells. [PLoS One] Full Article

Protease Omi Facilitates Neurite Outgrowth in Mouse Neuroblastoma N2a Cells by Cleaving Transcription Factor E2F1
Researchers investigated the role of protease Omi in regulating differentiation of mouse neuroblastoma cells and identified the substrate of Omi involved in this process. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Abstract

Upregulation of miR-130b Enhances Stem Cell-Like Phenotype in Glioblastoma by Inactivating the Hippo Signaling Pathway
Scientists reported that miR-130b directly repressed MST1 and SAV1 expression in human glioblastoma cells. Overexpression of miR-130b induced hyperactivation of the Yes-associated protein/PDZ-binding motif and enhanced expression of the Hippo signaling downstream genes CTGF and the pluripotency associated markers, including CD133, SOX2, Nanog, MYC and BMI1, leading to promotion of glioblastoma stem cell phenotype. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Neural Supplements For High-Quality Neural Cell Cultures
 
REVIEWS
Cell-Based Therapies for Parkinson Disease—Past Insights and Future Potential
Despite the fact that Parkinson disease (PD) is now known to have extensive non-nigral pathology with a wide range of clinical features, dopaminergic drug therapies are still the mainstay of therapy, and work well for many years. Given the success of pharmacological dopamine replacement, pursuit of cell-based dopamine replacement strategies seemed to be the next logical step, and studies were initiated over 30 years ago to explore the possibility of dopaminergic cell transplantation. [Nat Rev Neurol] Abstract

Viral and Transgenic Reporters and Genetic Analysis of Adult Neurogenesis
The authors review available strategies for marking and quantifying various classes of stem and progenitor cells in the adult brain, genetically tracing their progeny, and studying the properties of stem cells and new neurons. [Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol] Abstract

Cell Therapy for Parkinson´s Disease: Functional Role of the Host Immune Response on Survival and Differentiation of Dopaminergic Neuroblasts
The authors analyze data on the functional effects of signals from the innate immune system on dopaminergic differentiation, survival and proliferation. Then, they discussed efforts on cell transplantation in animal models and Parkinson´s Disease patients, highlighting the immune response and the immunomodulatory treatment strategies performed. [Brain Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
BrightFocus Foundation Announces New Grant Recipients for Alzheimer’s and Vision Disease Research
BrightFocus Foundation, which funds research worldwide on Alzheimer’s disease, glaucoma, and macular degeneration, announced that its 2015 research program grants have been awarded to 58 scientists in 20 states and 7 foreign countries. [BrightFocus Foundation] Press Release

Moffitt Cancer Center Teams Up with MD Anderson to Discover, Test Novel Agents to Prevent Cancer
Moffitt Cancer Center has joined MD Anderson’s National Cancer Institute (NCI) Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Chemoprevention Trials Consortia. Sponsored by the NCI’s Division of Cancer Prevention, the consortia conducts early clinical development of promising new preventive agents through its Phase 0/I/II Cancer Prevention Clinical Trials Program. [Moffitt Cancer Center (Newswise, Inc.)] Press Release

From our sponsor: Learn about applications of ALDHbr cells in regenerative medicine. Watch the video.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW ISCBC 2015: International Stem Cell Biology Conference
October 11-12, 2015
Osaka, Japan

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Faculty Position – Neuroscience/Brain Repair/Stroke Recovery (University of Ottawa)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Harry Eagle Scholar Awards for Postdoctoral Candidates (Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cancer Research (Rutgers University)

Chemist/Biochemist/Nanotechnologist (Fondazione IRCCS Istituto Neurologico “Carlo Besta”)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Development and Cancer (Columbia University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow/Research Assistant Professor – Neurodegenerative Diseases (The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology)

PhD Student – Biology of Brain Metastasis (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neural Development and Function (Mayo Clinic)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cells (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)


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