Volume 9.24 | Jun 24

Neural Cell News 9.24 June 24, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Study in Mice Suggests that Stem Cells in the Brain May Not Be Able to Develop into Many Different Cell Types
Adult neural stem cells, which are commonly thought of as having the ability to develop into many types of brain cells, are in reality pre-programmed before birth to make very specific types of neurons, at least in mice, according to scientists. [Press release from UCSF discussing online prepublication in Cell]
Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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Calpain Determines the Propensity of Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells to Autophagic Cell Death following Insulin Withdrawal
Scientists report a switch in the mode of cell death in hippocampal neural stem (HCN) cells with calpain as a critical determinant. In HCN cells, calpain 1 expression was barely detectable while calpain 2 was predominant. [Stem Cells] Abstract

A New Model for Post-Integration Latency in Macroglial Cells to Study HIV-1 Reservoirs of the Brain
Human neural stem cells were used to generate a system that models HIV-1 transcriptional latency in proliferating progenitor, as well as differentiated macroglial cell populations and latency-modulating effects of latency reversing agents and compounds targeting HIV-1 transcription were analyzed. [AIDS]
Abstract | Press Release

Gephyrin Cleavage in In Vitro Brain Ischemia Decreases GABAA Receptor Clustering and Contributes to Neuronal Death
Researchers investigated the changes in gephyrin protein levels during brain ischemia and in excitotoxic conditions, which may affect synaptic clustering of γ-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors. They found that gephyrin is cleaved by calpains following excitotoxic stimulation of hippocampal neurons with glutamate, as well as after intrahippocampal injection of kainate, giving rise to a stable cleavage product. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Aberrant Purkinje Cell Activity Is the Cause of Dystonia in a shRNA-Based Mouse Model of Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism
Knockdown of α3-containing sodium pumps mimicked both the behavioral and electrophysiological changes seen in the pharmacologic model of Rapid Onset Dystonia-Parkinsonism, recapitulating key aspects of the human disorder. Scientists found that knockdown of the α3 isoform altered the intrinsic pacemaking of Purkinje cells, but not the neurons of the deep cerebellar nuclei. [Neurobiol Dis] Abstract

Tet3 Mediates Stable Glucocorticoid-Induced Alterations in DNA Methylation and Dnmt3a/Dkk1 Expression in Neural Progenitors
Scientists investigated the effects of dexamethasone (Dex) by MeDIP-like genome-wide analysis of differentially methylated DNA regions in neural stem cells (NSCs) isolated from embryonic rat cortices. They found that Dex-induced genome-wide DNA hypomethylation in the NSCs in vitro. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Neural Stem Cell Transplantation at Critical Period Improves Learning and Memory through Restoring Synaptic Impairment in Alzheimer’s Disease Mouse Model
Investigators demonstrated that transplantation of neural stem cells into 12-month-old Tg2576 brains markedly improved both cognitive impairments and neuropathological features by reducing β-amyloid processing and upregulating clearance of β-amyloid, secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, endogenous neurogenesis, as well as synapse formation. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

STAM2, A Member of the Endosome-Associated Complex ESCRT-0 Is Highly Expressed in Neurons
To analyze signal transducing adaptor molecule 2 (STAM2) in the nervous system, its gene expression and protein localization in the mouse brain were identified using three methods: mRNA in situ hybridization, immunohistochemistry, and via lacZ reporter in frame with Stam2 gene using the gene trap mouse line Stam2Gt1Gaj. [Mol Cell Neurosci] Full Article

Microglia Activate Migration of Glioma Cells through a Pyk2 Intracellular Pathway
Investigators demonstrated that microglia can promote glioma migration through a mechanism independent of extracellular matrix degradation. Using western blot analysis, they found upregulation of proline rich tyrosine kinase 2 (Pyk2) protein phosphorylated at Tyr579/580 in glioma cells treated with microglia conditioned medium. [PLoS One] Full Article

A Critical Role of RBM8a in Proliferation and Differentiation of Embryonic Neural Progenitors
The authors found that RBM8a is critical for proliferation and differentiation in cortical neural progenitor cells (NPCs). RBM8a overexpression stimulates embryonic NPC proliferation and suppresses neuronal differentiation. [Neural Dev] Full Article

RE1 Silencing Transcription Factor/Neuron-Restrictive Silencing Factor Regulates Expansion of Adult Mouse Subventricular Zone-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells In Vitro
Researchers showed that repressor element 1 (RE1) silencing transcription factor knockdown affects the capacity of progenitor cells to generate neurospheres, reduces cell proliferation, and triggers cell differentiation despite the presence of growth factors. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract | Full Article

Characterization of Molecular and Cellular Phenotypes Associated with a Heterozygous CNTNAP2 Deletion Using Patient-Derived hiPSC Neural Cells
Using human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs) derived from two individuals with a large heterozygous deletion in contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CNTNAP2) and discordant clinical outcomes, researchers characterized CNTNAP2 expression patterns in hiPSC neural progenitor cells, two independent populations of hiPSC-derived neurons and hiPSC-derived oligodendrocyte precursor cells. [npj Schizophrenia] Full Article

Precursor States of Brain Tumor Initiating Cell Lines Are Predictive of Survival in Xenografts and Associated with Glioblastoma Subtypes
The authors applied a stem cell biology approach and compared self-renewal, marker expression, label retention, and asymmetric cell division in 20 brain-tumor-initiating cell lines. [Stem Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Only One of These Antibodies Will Work for Your Cell Analysis. We Take the Guesswork Out of Finding the Right
The Vascular Niche in Adult Neurogenesis
The authors summarize in vivo studies supporting the contention that blood vessels may indeed control function of neuronal stem cells residing in the two major neurogenic niches of the adult brain, namely the sub-ventricular zone and the hippocampus. [Mech Dev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
StemCells, Inc.’s Phase II Pathway Study for Cervical Spinal Cord Injury Approved by Health Canada
StemCells, Inc. announced that Health Canada has authorized the company to expand its Phase II clinical trial for chronic cervical spinal cord injury into Canada. [StemCells, Inc.] Press Release

ImmunoCellular Therapeutics Establishes Agreement with Pure MHC for Novel Quality Control Assay for ICT-107 Phase III Registrational Trial
ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd. announced an agreement with Pure MHC for development of a novel assay for quality control that will be an important component of ImmunoCellular’s ICT-107 Phase III registrational clinical program in newly diagnosed glioblastoma, anticipated to begin in the second half of 2015. [ImmunoCellular Therapeutics, Ltd.] Press Release

New City of Hope Clinical Trial Harnesses the Power of the Immune System to Fight Brain Cancers
City of Hope researchers are testing the bold approach to cancer treatment against one of medicine’s biggest challenges: brain cancer. They will launch a clinical trial using patients’ own modified T cells to fight advanced brain tumors. [City of Hope] Press Release

Brain Inflammation Targeted in First Project from Dementia Consortium
Funding worth nearly half a million pounds will unite academics at the University of Southampton with drug discovery experts at the medical research charity MRC Technology, to target the immune system in the hunt for new treatments for Alzheimer’s disease. [University of Southampton] Press Release

Taubman Prize Awarded to Mahlon DeLong, M.D., of Emory University
A physician-scientist whose work has improved quality of life for tens of thousands of Parkinson’s disease patients is the recipient of the 2015 Taubman Prize for Excellence in Translational Medical Science, the University of Michigan’s A. Alfred Taubman Medical Research Institute announced. [University of Michigan Health System] Press Release

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NEW Engineering the Brain: Technologies for Neurobiological Applications
October 15-16, 2015
Chicago, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW PhD Student – Biology of Brain Metastasis (Centro Nacional de Investigaciones Oncológicas)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neural Development and Function (Mayo Clinic)

Junior Research Group for Neuroscientists (Werner Reichardt Centre for Integrative Neuroscience)

Aotearoa Foundation Neuroscience Fellowship (University of Auckland)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cells (Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia)

Postdoctoral Associate – Neuro-Oncology (University of Florida)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroplacentology (Children’s National Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – iPSC Research and Banking (University of Magna Graecia)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Neuroscience (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neurodevelopment (Vollum Institute)

Faculty Positions (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

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