Volume 9.21 | Jun 3

Neural Cell News 9.21 June 3, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Research Solves Mystery of Memory and Mood
Scientists are one step closer to understanding how the brain regulates memory and mood, thanks to the discovery of two distinct types of stem cells. They identified two types of stem cells in the hippocampus, a region of the brain crucial for learning and memory. [Press release from the University of Queensland discussing online publication in The Journal of Neuroscience] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Effects of Ghrelin on the Proteolytic Pathways of Alzheimer’s Disease Neuronal Cells
Scientists dissected the effect of ghrelin treatment on the two major intracellular proteolytic pathways, the ubiquitin-proteasome system and autophagy, in cellular models of Alzheimer’s disease. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Generation of Dopamine Neurons from Rodent Fibroblasts through the Expandable Neural Precursor Cell Stage
Researchers showed that co-expression of Wernig factors and Bcl-xL induces fibroblast conversion into neural precursor cells (NPCs) that are highly expandable for greater than 100 passages. Gene expression analyses showed that the induced NPCs exhibited high expression of common NPC genes, but not genes specific to defined embryonic brain regions. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Semaphorin4A Is Cytotoxic to Oligodendrocytes and Is Elevated in Microglia and Multiple Sclerosis
Scientists demonstrated that Semaphorin4A (Sema4A) is cytotoxic to oligodendrocytes (OLs) in culture: an effect accompanied by process collapse, membrane blebbing, and phosphatidylserine inversion. They further demonstrated that Sema4A preferentially binds to primary OLs but not astrocytes. [ASN Neuro] Full Article

N-Acetyl-L-Tryptophan, but not N-Acetyl-D-Tryptophan, Rescues Neuronal Cell Death in Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis
By quantifying cell death, the authors demonstrated that N-acetyl-L-tryptophan and N-acetyl-DL-tryptophan are neuroprotective in NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells and/or primary motor neurons, while their isomer N-acetyl-D-tryptophan has no protective effect. [J Neurochem] Abstract

Substantial Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells into Motor Neurons on a Biomimetic Polyurea
To find the first restorative treatment for spinal cord injury, researchers have focused on stem cell therapies. However, one obstacle is the lack of an implantable cell scaffold that can support efficient motor neuron (MN) differentiation and proliferation. The authors aimed to overcome this through the use of an RGD functionalized novel biomimetic polyurea, optimized to encourage efficient differentiation of MNs. [Macromol Biosci] Abstract

Allogeneic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Derived from Embryonic Stem Cells Promote Functional Recovery after Transplantation into Injured Spinal Cord of Nonhuman Primates
Common marmoset embryonic stem cell-neural stem/progenitor cells were grafted into the lesion epicenter 14 days after contusive spinal cord injury in adult marmosets. In the presence of a low-dose of tacrolimus, several grafted cells survived without tumorigenicity and differentiated into neurons, astrocytes, or oligodendrocytes. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Bystander Effect Fuels Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells to Quickly Attenuate Early Stage Neurological Deficits after Stroke
Investigators engrafted human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural stem cells (iPSC-NSCs) into the ipsilesional hippocampus, a natural niche of NSCs, at 24 hours after stroke. At 48 hours after stroke, hiPSC-NSCs had migrated to the stroke lesion and quickly improved neurological function. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

The Origin, Development and Molecular Diversity of Rodent Olfactory Bulb Glutamatergic Neurons Distinguished by Expression of Transcription Factor NeuroD1
Investigators utilized NeuroD1 to identify the different subpopulations of olfactory bulb glutamategic neurons and their progenitors, both in the embryo and postnatally. [PLoS One] Full Article

Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors Resensitize EGFR/EGFRvIII-Overexpressing, Erlotinib-Resistant Glioblastoma Cells to Tyrosine Kinase Inhibition
Scientists combined the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitor erlotinib with different histone deacetylase inhibitors and investigated the benefit of combinatorial therapy for glioblastoma cells. [Target Oncol] Abstract

Differentiation of Multipotent Neural Stem Cells Derived from Rett Syndrome Patients Is Biased Toward the Astrocytic Lineage
An isogenic Rett syndrome (RTT)-human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) model demonstrated that MeCP2 participates in the differentiation of neural cells. Moreover, MeCP2 deficiency triggers perturbation of astrocytic gene expression, yielding accelerated astrocyte formation from RTT-hiPSC-derived neural stem cells. [Mol Brain] Full Article

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Oligodendrocyte Generation during Mouse Development
The authors review advances in the research on oligodendrocyte development and highlight areas where questions remain to be answered in both developmental biology and neurobiology related aspects. [Glia] Abstract

The Role of Glioma Stem Cells in Chemotherapy Resistance and Glioblastoma Multiforme Recurrence
The authors discuss the molecular mechanisms of chemoresistance of glioma stem cells (GSCs) and the reasons why complete eradication of GSCs is so difficult to achieve. They also describe the targeted therapies currently available for GSCs and possible mechanisms to overcome such chemoresistance and avoid therapeutic relapse. [Expert Rev Neurother] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
Randomized Phase II ReACT Study of RINTEGA® in Recurrent Bevacizumab-Naive Glioblastoma Demonstrates Statistically Significant Overall Survival and Emergence of Long-Term Survival Benefit; Primary Endpoint of PFS6 Met
Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. presented positive results from the company’s randomized, double-blind Phase II study of RINTEGA® (rindopepimut) in patients with EGFRvIII-positive, recurrent glioblastoma. [Press release from Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals Presents Updated Phase I/II Clinical Data on VAL-083 in Refractory Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced updated clinical data from its Phase I/II clinical trial of VAL-083 (dianhydrogalactitol) in patients with refractory GBM, the most common and deadly form of human brain cancer. [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Merrimack Pharmaceuticals Announces Data from an Investigator-Sponsored Phase I Study Showing Acceptable Safety Profile for MM-398 in High-Grade Glioma
Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced data for MM-398 (irinotecan liposome injection), also known as “nal-IRI”, in a Phase I investigator-sponsored study at the University of California, San Francisco for high-grade glioma. [Press release from Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Annual Meeting, Chicago] Press Release

Alkermes to Present Clinical Data on ALKS 8700
Alkermes plc announced that data from its Phase I, randomized, double-blind clinical study of ALKS 8700, a novel monomethyl fumarate molecule in development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis, is scheduled to be presented. [Press release from Alkermes plc discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the Consortium of Multiple Sclerosis Centers (CMSC), Indianapolis] Press Release

Mundipharma EDO GmbH Data Confirm EDO-S101 Is Effective in Preclinical Models of Human Glioblastoma
Mundipharma EDO GmbH demonstrated that EDO-S101 is effective in models of human glioblastoma irrespective of methyltransferase status and in combination with radiotherapy. [Press release from Mundipharma EDO GmbH (PR Newswire Association LLC) discussing research presented at the European Organization for Research & Treatment of Cancer (EORTC), European Association of NeuroOncology (EANO) and European Society for Medical Oncology (ESM0) Congress, Istanbul] Press Release

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CPRIT Awards $16.6 Million for Cancer Research, Prevention, and Faculty Recruitment
The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers more than $12.6 million in research grants for cancer research and prevention, as well as an additional $4 million for recruiting cancer scientists. [UT Southwestern Medical Center] Press Release

Researchers at the Ottawa Hospital, the University of Ottawa and CHEO Awarded $28.5M from the Canada Foundation for Innovation for Research in Regenerative Medicine, Neuroscience and Other Areas
Scientists from the Ottawa Hospital, the University of Ottawa and the Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario (CHEO), will share $28,511,215 from the Canada Foundation for Innovation to support cutting-edge research in stem cells, pediatric diseases and neurodegenerative disorders. [Ottawa Hospital Research Institute] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cell Symposia Meeting – Stem Cell Epigenetics
September 20-22, 2015
Sitges, Spain

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Group Leader Position – Neural Regulation of Metabolism (Medical Research Council – Clinical Sciences Center)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroplacentology (Children’s National Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow Positions – iPSC Research and Banking (University of Magna Graecia)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Neuroscience (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neurodevelopment (Vollum Institute)

Faculty Positions (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

PhD Studentship – Neurobiology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

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