Volume 9.18 | May 13

Neural Cell News 9.18 May 13, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Epilepsy Has Been Found to Reduce the Generation of New Neurons
Using an epilepsy model in genetically modified mice, researchers have discovered that hippocampal neural stem cells stop generating new neurons and are turned into reactive astrocytes, a cell type that promotes inflammation and alters communication between neurons. [Press release from the University of the Basque Country discussing online prepublication in Cell Stem Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
LOXL2 Oxidizes Methylated TAF10 and Controls TFIID-Dependent Genes during Neural Progenitor Differentiation
During zebrafish development, the absence of LOXL2 resulted in the aberrant overexpression of the neural progenitor gene Sox2 and impaired neural differentiation. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Neuronal Development Is Promoted by Weakened Intrinsic Antioxidant Defences Due to Epigenetic Repression of Nrf2
Scientists showed that early in mouse cortical neuronal development in vitro and in vivo, expression of the master-regulator of antioxidant genes, transcription factor NF-E2-related-factor-2 (Nrf2), is repressed by epigenetic inactivation of its promoter. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Differential Connexin Function Enhances Self-Renewal in Glioblastoma
Scientists found that glioblastoma cancer stem cells possess functional gap junctions that can be targeted using clinically relevant compounds to reduce self-renewal and tumor growth. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Feedback Circuitry between miR-218 Repression and RTK Activation in Glioblastoma
Researchers found that decreased miR-218 expression in glioblastoma cells also increased the expression of genes encoding additional upstream and downstream components of receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) signaling pathways, including the RTK platelet-derived growth factor receptor α and the kinases ribosomal S6 kinase 2 and S6 kinase 1, that collectively overrode the negative feedback mechanism. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Bisphenol-A Mediated Inhibition of Hippocampal Neurogenesis Attenuated by Curcumin via Canonical Wnt Pathway
Researchers assessed the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin against bisphenol A (BPA)-mediated reduced neurogenesis and the underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms. Both in vitro and in vivo studies showed that curcumin protects against BPA-induced hippocampal neurotoxicity. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

A Molecular Model for Neurodevelopmental Disorders
The authors tested the convergent effects of methyl-CpG binding domain 5 and special AT-rich binding protein 2 reduced dosage in human neural stem cells, two genes implicated in 2q23.1 and 2q33.1 deletion syndromes, respectively, to develop a generalized model for neurodevelopmental disorders. [Transl Psych] Full Article

Isolation of Human Adult Olfactory Sphere Cells as a Cell Source of Neural Progenitors
Adult human olfactory spheres (OSs) were generated and their characteristics analyzed. In culture to induce differentiation of oligodendrocytes, human OS cells expressed neuronal markers, but neither oligodendrocyte or astrocyte markers. [Stem Cell Res] Full Article

Cochlear Nucleus Whole Mount Explants Promote the Differentiation of Neuronal Stem Cells from the Cochlear Nucleus in Co-Culture Experiments
Scientists investigated whether the neurogenic environment of the cochlear nucleus can promote the survival of engrafted neuronal stem cells (NSCs) and whether cochlear nucleus-derived NSCs can differentiate into neurons and glia in brain tissue. [Brain Res] Abstract

Acrylamide Inhibits Cellular Differentiation of Human Neuroblastoma and Glioblastoma Cells
Investigators explored human neuroblastoma and human glioblastoma cellular differentiation changes under exposure to acrylamide. [Food Chem Toxicol] Abstract

Upregulation of Slc38a1 Gene Along with Promotion of Neurosphere Growth and Subsequent Neuronal Specification in Undifferentiated Neural Progenitor Cells Exposed to Theanine
Sustained exposure to theanine, but not glutamine, accelerated the growth of neurospheres composed of proliferating cells and 3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl)-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide reducing activity at concentrations of 1–100 μM in undifferentiated progenitor cells. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Neural Supplements For High-Quality Neural Cell Cultures
Reactive Astrocytes as Neural Stem or Progenitor Cells: In Vivo Lineage, In Vitro Potential, and Genome-Wide Expression Analysis
The authors review the stem cell hallmarks of endogenous neural stem cells during development and in some niches of the adult mammalian brain to then compare these with reactive astrocytes acquiring stem cell hallmarks after traumatic and ischemic brain injury. [Glia] Full Article

Astrocyte Development: A Guide for the Perplexed
The authors provide an overview of astrocyte development, including recent insights into molecular mechanisms of astrocyte specification, regional patterning and proliferation. [Glia] Abstract

The Role of Cannabinoids in Adult Neurogenesis
The authors summarize the evidence that the cannabinoid system is intricately associated with neuronal differentiation and maturation of neural progenitor cells, and highlight intrinsic/extrinsic signaling mechanisms that are cannabinoid targets. [Br J Pharmacol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

Target Cancer Metabolism
Australian Studies Confirm TRXE-009 Kills Resistant Pediatric Brain Cancer Cells
Novogen Limited, in conjunction with Australian pediatric cancer researchers, released key pre-clinical data on experimental cancer drug-candidate, TRXE-009, confirming its potential to become an important new therapy against an incurable pediatric brain cancer called diffuse intrinsic pontine glioma. [Press release from Novogen Limited discussing research presented at the 3rd Biennial Conference on Pediatric Neuro-Oncology Basic and Translational Research, San Diego] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals to Present Additional Data on VAL-083 as a Potential Treatment for Temozolomide-Resistant GBM
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it will be presenting additional data on VAL-083 as a potential new treatment for temozolomide-resistant glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR) Advances in Brain Cancer Research Conference, Washington D.C.] Press Release

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Testing of UCB Stem Cell Survivability under Microgravity Simulation
In May 2015, International Space Medicine Consortium will commence a study comparing the differentiation of umbilical cord blood (UCB) stem cell survivability under 1G and Micro-G conditions at its Micro-G laboratory in Connecticut. The study will also apply the E-peptide developed by E-P Therapeutics Inc. under 1G and Micro-G conditions and compare the functionality of the neural differentiated stem cells to measure the Epeptide action performance yield. [International Space Medicine Consortium] Press Release

GenSpera Expands Phase II Glioblastoma Trial of Mipsagargin
GenSpera, Inc. announced the successful completion of the first stage of an ongoing Phase II study of its lead investigational agent, mipsagargin, in glioblastoma and the continuation of enrollment for an expansion Phase of the trial. [GenSpera, Inc.] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology/Neuroscience (Tulane University)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neurodevelopment (Vollum Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Modeling of Frontotemporal Dementia Using iPSC (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

Faculty Positions (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

PhD Studentship – Neurobiology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of the Nervous System and the Origin of Neural Diversity (Columbia University Medical Center)

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