Volume 9.16 | Apr 29

Neural Cell News 9.16 April 29, 2015
Neural Cell News
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A Glitch in the Recycling
In studying the molecular biology of brain development, researchers discovered how disruption of a developmental mechanism alters the very nerve cells that are most affected in Parkinson’s disease. They also explained how such disruption induces a lethal dysfunction in the internal, house-keeping processes of such neurons. [Press release from Ludwig Institute for Cancer Research discussing online prepublication in Nature Neuroscience] Press Release | Abstract
FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Neuronal Activity Promotes Glioma Growth through Neuroligin-3 Secretion
Conditioned medium from optogenetically stimulated cortical slices promoted proliferation of pediatric and adult patient-derived high-grade glioma (HGG) cultures, indicating secretion of activity-regulated mitogen(s). The synaptic protein neuroligin-3 (NLGN3) was identified as the leading candidate mitogen, and soluble NLGN3 was sufficient and necessary to promote robust HGG cell proliferation. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release | Video

Nkx2.1-Derived Astrocytes and Neurons together with Slit2 Are Indispensable for Anterior Commissure Formation
Scientists showed that the transcription factor Nkx2.1 known to control the specification of GABAergic interneurons also regulates the differentiation of astroglia and polydendrocytes within the mouse anterior commissure. [Nat Commun] Full Article

APP Metabolism Regulates Tau Proteostasis in Human Cerebral Cortex Neurons
To investigate the relationship between APP metabolism and tau protein levels and phosphorylation, researchers studied human-stem-cell-derived forebrain neurons with genetic forms of Alzheimer’s disease, all of which increase the release of pathogenic Aβ peptides. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Transcriptional Hallmarks of Heterogeneous Neural Stem Cell Niches of the Subventricular Zone
In order to probe heterogeneity of the postnatal subventricular zone, scientists microdissected its dorsal and lateral walls at different postnatal ages and isolated neural stem cells and their immediate progeny based on their expression of Hes5-EGFP/Prominin1 and Ascl1-EGFP, respectively. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Neural Stem Cells in the Adult Subventricular Zone Oxidize Fatty Acids to Produce Energy and Support Neurogenic Activity
Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) within the adult subventricular zone expressed enzymes required for fatty acid oxidation and showed sustained increases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with a polyunsaturated fatty acid. NSPCs also demonstrated sustained decreases in oxygen consumption upon treatment with etomoxir, an inhibitor of fatty acid oxidation. [Stem Cells] Abstract

The Control of Reactive Oxygen Species Production by SHP-1 in Oligodendrocytes
Deficiency in myelin and myelin basic protein (MBP) expression in both brains and spinal cords of motheaten mice correlated with reduced MBP mRNA expression levels in vivo and in purified oligodendrocytes in vitro. [Glia] Abstract

Acquisition of Meiotic DNA Repair Regulators Maintain Genome Stability in Glioblastoma
Disrupted meiotic cDNA1 (DMC1), whose only known function is as an homologous recombination recombinase, was expressed by glioblastoma (GBM) cells and induced by radiation. Although targeting DMC1 in non-neoplastic cells minimally altered cell growth, DMC1 depletion in GBM cells decreased proliferation, induced activation of CHK1 and expression of p21CIP1/WAF1, and increased RPA foci, suggesting increased replication stress. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Identification of Precursor MicroRNAs within Distal Axons of Sensory Neuron
Researchers showed that a subset of pre-microRNAs (miRNAs), whose mature miRNAs are enriched in axonal compartment of sympathetic neurons, are present in axons of neurons both in vivo and in vitro by quantitative PCR and by in situ hybridization. [J Neurochem] Abstract

532 nm Low-Power Laser Irradiation Facilitates the Migration of GABAergic Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells in Mouse Neocortex
The authors investigated whether transcranial 532 nm low-power laser irradiation affects neural stem/progenitor cells in adult murine neocortex and in neurospheres from embryonic mice. [PLoS One] Full Article

SOX2 Reprograms Resident Astrocytes into Neural Progenitors in the Adult Brain
Scientists showed that a distinct cellular sequence is involved in SOX2-driven in situ conversion of adult astrocytes to neurons. This includes ASCL1+ neural progenitors and DCX+ adult neuroblasts as intermediates. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
Decoding Astrocyte Heterogeneity: New Tools for Clonal Analysis
The authors summarize how astrocyte heterogeneity can be decoded studying the embryonic development of astrocyte lineages and their clonal relationship. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Controlled and Impaired Mitochondrial Quality in Neurons: Molecular Physiology and Prospective Pharmacology
The authors highlight the most notable and acknowledged deficiencies of mitochondrial function and their relationship with diseases occurring in neurons and their transmission. [Pharmacol Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

Target Cancer Metabolism
Teva and Active Biotech Announce First Patient Enrolled in Phase II Study Evaluating Laquinimod for Primary Progressive MS
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Active Biotech announced the first patient has been enrolled in the study “A Randomized Placebo-Controlled Trial Evaluating Laquinimod in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis (PPMS), Gauging Gradations In MRI and Clinical Outcomes” (ARPEGGIO), a Phase II study to evaluate laquinimod, an investigational, oral, immune modulator, for the treatment of PPMS. [Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.] Press Release

Lieber Institute for Brain Development Shares Large Collaborative Grant to Study Origins of Schizophrenia
The Lieber Institute for Brain Development announced the award of a $10.5 million NIH grant to further its efforts to identify the causes of schizophrenia and other neurodevelopmental disorders that will guide development of more precise and effective treatments. [The Lieber Institute for Brain Development] Press Release

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NEW Cells: From Robert Hooke to Cell Therapy – A 350 Year Journey
October 5-6, 2015
London, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (Nanyang Technological University)

NEW Faculty Positions (IDG/McGovern Institute for Brain Research at Peking University)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Neurobiology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neuroscience, Physiology, Aging, Neural Systems and Molecular Biology (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of the Nervous System and the Origin of Neural Diversity (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Early Human Brain Development Modeling with hiPSCs (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)

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