Volume 9.15 | Apr 22

Neural Cell News 9.15 April 22, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Drugs Stimulate Body’s Stem Cells to Replace the Brain Cells Lost in Multiple Sclerosis
A pair of topical medicines already alleviating skin conditions may prove to have another, even more compelling use: instructing stem cells in the brain to reverse damage caused by multiple sclerosis. Researchers used a new discovery approach to identify drugs that could activate mouse and human brain stem cells in the laboratory. [Press release from Case Western Reserve University discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster "Neural Stem Cells" Awaits
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Dynamin-Related Protein 1 Is Required for Normal Mitochondrial Bioenergetic and Synaptic Function in CA1 Hippocampal Neurons
Using ATP FRET sensors, scientists found that cultured neurons lacking dynamin-related protein 1 could not maintain normal levels of mitochondrial-derived ATP when energy consumption was increased by neural activity. These deficits occurred specifically at the nerve terminal, but not the cell body, and were sufficient to impair synaptic vesicle cycling. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

The Regulation of p53 Upregulated Modulator of Apoptosis (Puma) by JNK/c-Jun Pathway in β-Amyloid Induced Neuron Death
Researchers demonstrated that the JNK/c-Jun pathway is activated, in cultures of cortical neurons following treatment with oligomeric β-amyloid (Aβ) and in Alzheimer’s disease transgenic mice, and that inhibition of this pathway by selective inhibitor blocks induction of Puma by Aβ. [J Neurochem] Abstract

Collybistin Binds and Inhibits mTORC1 Signaling: A Potential Novel Mechanism Contributing to Intellectual Disability and Autism
By using induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells from a male patient with a deletion of entire collybistin (CB) gene and from control individuals, as well as a heterologous expression system, researchers describe that CB physically interacted with mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) and inhibited mTOR complex 1 (mTORC1) signaling pathway and protein synthesis. [Eur J Hum Genet] Abstract

Differentiation of Human Neural Stem Cells into Motor Neurons Stimulates Mitochondrial Biogenesis and Decreases Glycolytic Flux
To test if mitobiogenesis is increased during motor neuron differentiation, scientists differentiated human embryonic stem cell and induced pluripotent stem cell-derived human neural stem cells into motor neurons. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Toward a Broader View of Ube3a in a Mouse Model of Angelman Syndrome: Expression in Brain, Spinal Cord, Sciatic Nerve and Glial Cells
Findings regarding Ube3a expression in non-neuronal cells of the brain have varied. Utilizing enriched primary cultures of oligodendrocytes and astrocytes, the authors showed that Ube3a is expressed, but not imprinted in these cell types. [PLoS One] Full Article

Periostin Promotes Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Differentiation following Hypoxic-Ischemic Injury
Scientists investigated the role of periostin (POSTN) in neural stem cells (NSCs) following hypoxia-ischemia. They found that POSTN mRNA levels significantly increased in differentiating NSCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

Diallyl Trisufide Protects against Oxygen Glucose Deprivation-Induced Apoptosis by Scavenging Free Radicals via the PI3K/Akt -Mediated Nrf2/HO-1 Signaling Pathway in B35 Neural Cells
Scientists used oxygen glucose deprivation (OGD) model to investigate the neuroprotective effects of diallyl trisulfide and the mechanisms related to these effects. B35 neural cells exposed to OGD caused a decrease in cell viability and increased in the percentage of apoptotic cells and the level of intracellular cleaved caspase-3, all of which were markedly attenuated by DATS. [Brain Res] Abstract

Capillarisin Suppresses Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Inflammatory Mediators in BV2 Microglial Cells by Suppressing TLR4-Mediated NF-κB and MAPKs Signaling Pathway
The authors investigated the anti-inflammatory effects and molecular mechanisms of capillarisin on LPS-stimulated BV2 microglial cells. The effects of capillarisin on inflammatory mediators TNF-α, IL-6, IL-1β, NO and PGE2 were detected. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Microglia in Glia-Neuron Co-Cultures Exhibit Robust Phagocytic Activity without Concomitant Inflammation or Cytotoxicity
A simple method to co-culture granule neurons and glia from a single brain region is described, and microglia activation profiles were assessed in response to naturally occurring neuronal apoptosis, excitotoxin-induced neuronal death, and lipopolysaccharide addition. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

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REVIEWS
Astrocyte Barriers to Neurotoxic Inflammation
The author discusses evidence that astrocytes have crucial roles in attracting and restricting CNS inflammation, with important implications for diverse CNS disorders. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Opexa Therapeutics to Present Biomarker Data from NMO Patients
Opexa will present the results of a study conducted to characterize the cellular immune profile of neuromyelitis optica (NMO) patients prescribed B-cell depleting therapy in comparison to those of healthy donors. [Press release from Opexa Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) 2015 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.] Press Release

TECFIDERA® (Dimethyl Fumarate) Data Reinforce Strong, Sustained Efficacy for Newly-Diagnosed MS Patients
Biogen announced new data that continue to support TECFIDERA® as an effective, long-term treatment for people who are living with relapsing forms of multiple sclerosis (MS). [Press release from Biogen discussing research presented at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) 2015 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.] Press Release

Acorda Presents Data on First Clinical Study of Remyelinating Antibody for Multiple Sclerosis
Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. presented data from a Phase I clinical trial of rHIgM22, a remyelinating antibody being studied for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. [Press release from Acorda Therapeutics, Inc. discussing research presented at the American Academy of Neurology (AAN) 2015 Annual Meeting, Washington D.C.] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals Presents Promising Preclinical Data on VAL-083’s Potential to Treat Temozolomide-Resistant Glioblastoma Multiforme (GBM)
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced promising preclinical data on the potential for its lead product candidate VAL-083 (dianhydrogalactitol) to treat patients with temozolomide-resistant GBM. [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research presented at the 2015 Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), Philadelphia] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
The ALS Association, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, and Massachusetts General Hospital Neurological Clinical Research Institute Collaborate with GlaxoSmithKline on New ALS Clinical Trial
The ALS Association, Harvard Stem Cell Institute, and Massachusetts General Hospital Neurological Clinical Research Institute announced they are collaborating with GlaxoSmithKline on a clinical trial to evaluate the potential of an anti-epileptic drug in ALS patients. [The ALS Association] Press Release

UCI MIND Redesignated as Alzheimer’s Disease Research Center
UC Irvine’s Institute for Memory Impairments and Neurological Disorders has received a five-year, $11 million grant from the National Institute on Aging to renew its status as one of only 27 Alzheimer’s Disease Research Centers in the nation. [UC Irvine] Press Release

Isarna Initiates First-in-Human Phase I Trial for ISTH0036 to Treat Advanced Glaucoma
Isarna Therapeutics announced the initiation of a Phase I clinical trial with ISTH0036, an antisense oligonucleotide selectively targeting TGF-β2 to treat advanced glaucoma. [Isarna Therapeutics] Press Release

Triphase Accelerator Corporation Initiates Phase I Study of Marizomib and Bevacizumab in Patients with Glioblastoma
Triphase Accelerator Corporation announced that it has initiated a Phase I proof-of-concept clinical study of marizomib. [Triphase Accelerator Corporation] Press Release

Oncolytics Biotech® Inc. Announces Receipt of Orphan Drug Designation from the U.S. FDA for Malignant Gliomas
Oncolytics Biotech Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted an orphan drug designation for its lead product candidate, REOLYSIN®, for the treatment of malignant glioma. [Oncolytics Biotech Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Target Cancer Metabolism
May 26-28, 2015
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Studentship – Neurobiology (Istituto Italiano di Tecnologia)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Early Stage Researcher – Role of Atypical Neural Connectivity in the Emergence of ASD and ADHD (University of London)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neuroscience, Physiology, Aging, Neural Systems and Molecular Biology (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of the Nervous System and the Origin of Neural Diversity (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Early Human Brain Development Modeling with hiPSCs (University of Bonn)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)


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