Volume 9.14 | Apr 15

Neural Cell News 9.14 April 15, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Biologists Identify Brain Tumor Weakness
Biologists have discovered a vulnerability of brain cancer cells that could be exploited to develop more-effective drugs against brain tumors. They found that a subset of glioblastoma tumor cells is dependent on a particular enzyme that breaks down the amino acid glycine. Without this enzyme, toxic metabolic byproducts build up inside the tumor cells, and they die. [Press release from Massachusetts Institute of Technology discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A Coding-Independent Function of an Alternative Ube3a Transcript during Neuronal Development
Scientists report that Ube3a1 RNA, a transcript that encodes a truncated Ube3a protein lacking catalytic activity, prevents exuberant dendrite growth and promotes spine maturation in rat hippocampal neurons. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Foxp1-Mediated Programming of Limb-Innervating Motor Neurons from Mouse and Human Embryonic Stem Cells
Scientists demonstrated that limb-innervating lateral motor column motor neurons can be efficiently generated from mouse and human embryonic stem cells through manipulation of the transcription factor Foxp1. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Neuronal Medium that Supports Basic Synaptic Functions and Activity of Human Neurons In Vitro
The authors examined neuronal activity in media widely used to culture neurons. They found that classic basal media, as well as serum, impair action potential generation and synaptic communication. To overcome this problem, they designed a new neuronal medium in which we adjusted the concentrations of inorganic salts, neuroactive amino acids, and energetic substrates. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Human iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors Preserve Vision in an AMD-Like Model
The authors demonstrated that transplantation of neural progenitor cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells (iNPCs) limits disease progression in the Royal College of Surgeons rat, a preclinical model of age-related macular degeneration (AMD). [Stem Cells] Abstract

Synergistic Action of Dendritic Mitochondria and Creatine Kinase Maintains ATP Homeostasis and Actin Dynamics in Growing Neuronal Dendrites
Scientists studied mitochondrial distribution within developing mouse cerebellar Purkinje cells and found that active delivery of mitochondria into their dendrites is a prerequisite for proper dendritic outgrowth. [J Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Galectin-1-Secreting Neural Stem Cells Elicit Long-Term Neuroprotection against Ischemic Brain Injury
Scientists investigated transplantation of galectin-1 (gal-1)-secreting neural stem cell into ischemic brains and identified the mechanisms underlying protection. To accomplish this goal, secretory gal-1 was stably overexpressed in NE-4C neural stem cells. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Thyroid Hormone-Otx2 Signaling Is Required for Embryonic Ventral Midbrain Neural Stem Cells Differentiated into Dopamine Neurons
Researchers provide both in vivo and in vitro evidence that thyroid hormone, an important physiological factor for brain development, promotes dopamine neuron differentiation from embryonic ventral midbrain neuronal stem cells. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Milk Fat Globule-EGF Factor VIII Attenuates CNS Injury by Promoting Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Migration after Cerebral Ischemia
Scientists report that the treatment of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF Factor VIII (MFG-E8) significantly improved the neurological deficit score, body weight lost and neural stem cell proliferation in a rat model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (tMCAO). Conversely, decreased neural stem cell proliferation was observed in Mfge8-/- mice in comparison with the wild-type counterparts underwent tMCAO. [PLoS One] Full Article

Protective Effects and Mechanisms of Salvianolic Acid B Against H2O2-Induced Injury in Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells
Investigators explored the potential mechanism of salvianolic acid B (Sal B) in protecting induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSC)-derived neural stem cells (NSCs) against H2O2-induced injury. iPSCs were induced into NSCs, iPSC-derived NSCs were treated with 50 μM Sal B for 24.5 hours and 500 μM H2O2 for 24 hours. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Ex Vivo Gene Therapy Using Patient iPSC-Derived NSCs Reverses Pathology in the Brain of a Homologous Mouse Model
Investigators evaluated a complete process of ex vivo gene therapy using human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neural stem cell (NSC) transplants in a well-characterized mouse model of a human lysosomal storage disease, Sly disease. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

View Webinar: Genome Editing: From Modeling Disease to Novel Therapeutics
 
REVIEWS
Heterogeneity of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor Signaling Networks in Glioblastoma
In glioblastoma (GBM) the heterogeneous expression of the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) poses a substantial challenge for the effective use of EGFR-targeted therapies. Understanding the mechanisms that cause EGFR heterogeneity in GBM should provide better insights into how they, and possibly other amplified receptor tyrosine kinases, affect cellular signalling, metabolism and drug resistance. [Nat Rev Cancer] Abstract

N-Cadherin-Based Adherens Junction Regulates the Maintenance, Proliferation, and Differentiation of Neural Progenitor Cells during Development
The authors discuss the roles of N-cadherin in the maintenance, proliferation, and differentiation of neural progenitor cells through components of adherens junctions, β-catenin and αE-catenin. [Cell Adh Migr] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Biogen Presents New Anti-LINGO-1 Phase II Acute Optic Neuritis Data Demonstrating Neurological Repair
Biogen announced detailed results from the Phase II RENEW study of anti-LINGO-1 in acute optic neuritis – the first clinical study to demonstrate remyelination following an inflammatory injury in humans. [Press release from Biogen discussing research to be presented at the 67th Annual Meeting of the American Academy of Neurology (AAN), Washington DC] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free Cell Stem Cell wallchart – Directed Differentiation of ESCs and iPSCs. Request your copy.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Florida Atlantic University Signs Collaboration Agreement with Internationally Renowned Nansen Neuroscience Network in Norway
Florida Atlantic University and the internationally renowned Nansen Neuroscience Network in Norway have signed a memorandum of understanding for cooperative research and education in the areas of neuroscience and brain health. [Florida Atlantic University] Press Release

ReNeuron Files Application to Commence Phase I/II Clinical Trial in the US with Its Stem Cell Therapy Candidate for the Blindness-Causing Disease, Retinitis Pigmentosa
ReNeuron Group plc announced that it has filed an investigational new drug application with the US FDA to commence a Phase I/II clinical trial with its human retinal progenitor cell therapy candidate for retinitis pigmentosa. [ReNeuron Group plc] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Therapy Bioprocessing & Commercialization
September 30-October 1, 2015
Alexandria, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Early Stage Researcher – Role of Atypical Neural Connectivity in the Emergence of ASD and ADHD (University of London)

Postdoctoral Fellowships – Neuroscience, Physiology, Aging, Neural Systems and Molecular Biology (Baylor College of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Positions – Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Development of the Nervous System and the Origin of Neural Diversity (Columbia University Medical Center)

PhD Position – Early Human Brain Development Modeling with hiPSCs (University of Bonn)

Manufacturing Manager – Cell Therapy (Opexa Therapeutics)

Assistant Professor – Neuroscience (Georgia State University)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)


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