Volume 9.09 | Mar 11

Neural Cell News 9.09 March 11, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Repairing the Cerebral Cortex: It Can Be Done
Researchers have just taken an important step in the area of cell therapy: repairing the cerebral cortex of the adult mouse using a graft of cortical neurons derived from embryonic stem cells. [Press release from INSERM discussing online prepublication in Neuron] Press Release | Abstract
Efficiently Expand hPSC-Derived NPCs Without Loss of Multipotency: STEMdiff™ Neural Progenitor Medium
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Human-Specific Gene ARHGAP11B Promotes Basal Progenitor Amplification and Neocortex Expansion
Scientists analyzed the transcriptomes of distinct progenitor subpopulations isolated by a cell polarity-based approach from developing mouse and human neocortex. Expression of ARHGAP11B in embryonic mouse neocortex promotes basal progenitor generation and self-renewal, and can increase cortical plate area and induce gyrification. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Subtype-Specific Regeneration of Retinal Ganglion Cells following Axotomy: Effects of Osteopontin and mTOR Signaling
In mammals, few retinal ganglion cells (RGCs) survive following axotomy, and even fewer regenerate axons. This could reflect differential extrinsic influences or the existence of subpopulations that vary in their responses to injury. Researchers tested these alternatives by comparing responses of molecularly distinct subsets of mouse RGCs to axotomy. [Neuron] Abstract

TLR9 Signaling in Microglia Attenuates Seizure-Induced Aberrant Neurogenesis in the Adult Hippocampus
Researchers found that microglia sense self-DNA from degenerating neurons following seizure, and secrete ​tumor necrosis factor-α, resulting in attenuation of aberrant neurogenesis. [Nat Commun] Full Article

The Autism-Associated Chromatin Modifier ​CHD8 Regulates other Autism Risk Genes during Human Neurodevelopment
Scientists identified genes targeted by ​CHD8, a chromodomain helicase strongly associated with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), in human midfetal brain, human neural stem cells (hNSCs) and embryonic mouse cortex. ​CHD8 knockdown in hNSCs results in dysregulation of ASD risk genes directly targeted by ​CHD8. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

The Lysine Acetyltransferase Activator Brpf1 Governs Dentate Gyrus Development through Neural Stem Cells and Progenitors
Investigators showed that forebrain-specific inactivation of the mouse Brpf1 gene causes hypoplasia in the dentate gyrus, including underdevelopment of the suprapyramidal blade and complete loss of the infrapyramidal blade. They traced the developmental origin to compromised Sox2+ neural stem cells and Tbr2+ intermediate neuronal progenitors. [PLoS Genet] Full Article | Press Release

Ascl1 Coordinately Regulates Gene Expression and the Chromatin Landscape during Neurogenesis
Scientists used a cellular model of neurogenesis to investigate how Ascl1 interacts with the chromatin landscape to regulate gene expression when promoting neuronal differentiation. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Regulation of Autocrine Signaling in Subsets of Sympathetic Neurons Has Regional Effects on Tissue Innervation
Researchers report that an autocrine signaling loop in developing mouse sympathetic neurons involving CD40L and CD40 selectively enhances nerve growth factor-promoted axon growth and branching, but not survival, via CD40L reverse signaling. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Continuous Non-Cell Autonomous Reprogramming to Generate Retinal Ganglion Cells for Glaucomatous Neuropathy
Scientists have derived retinal ganglion cells from the easily accessible adult limbal cells, re-programmed to pluripotency by a non nucleic acid approach, thus circumventing the risk of insertional mutagenesis. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Multipotent Caudal Neural Progenitors Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells that Give Rise to Lineages of the Central and Peripheral Nervous System
Scientists showed that dual inhibition of the GSK3β and activin/nodal pathways by small molecules differentiate human pluripotent stem cells directly into a preneuroepithelial progenitor population they named ‘caudal progenitor cells’. [Stem Cells] Abstract

N-Butylidenephthalide Attenuates Alzheimer’s Disease-Like Cytopathy in Down Syndrome Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons
To recapitulate the Alzheimer’s disease cell model, Down syndrome induced pluripotent stem cells, reprogrammed from mesenchymal stem cells in amniotic fluid, were directed toward a neuronal lineage. Neuroepithelial precursor cells with high purity and forebrain characteristics were robustly generated on day 10 of differentiation. [Sci Rep] Full Article

The Role of Drosophila TNF Eiger in Developmental and Damage-Induced Neuronal Apoptosis
Scientists showed that Eiger, specifically expressed in embryonic neurons and glia, is not involved in developmental neuronal apoptosis or in apoptotic cell clearance. Instead, they provide evidence that Eiger is required for damage-induced apoptosis in the embryonic CNS through regulation of the pro-apoptotic gene hid independently of the JNK pathway. [FEBS Lett] Abstract

FREE Wallchart: Glioblastoma Multiforme
 
REVIEWS
RNA-Targeted Therapeutics for ALS
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease leading to cell death of predominantly motor neurons. Despite extensive research in this disease, finding a way to slow the progress of the disease has been challenging. [Neurotherapeutics] Abstract

Transcriptional Control of Neural Crest Specification into Peripheral Glia
The author discusses transcriptional events and regulations occurring in neural crest cells and derived lineages, which control specification of peripheral glia. [Glia] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
CPRIT Awards Faculty $11.5 Million for Recruitment and Research in Brain and Bone Cancer, Biology, and Immunotherapy
The Cancer Prevention and Research Institute of Texas (CPRIT) has awarded UT Southwestern Medical Center researchers more than $7.5 million in research grants to improve diagnostic and therapeutic services and research relating to cancers of the brain, breast, throat, and bone, as well as to improve scientific understanding of cancer biology. UT Southwestern received an additional $4 million for recruiting emerging cancer scientists. [UT Southwestern Medical Center] Press Release

Asterias Biotherapeutics Initiates Patient Enrolment for Phase I/IIa Clinical Trial of AST-OPC1 in Newly Injured People with Complete Cervical Spinal Cord Injury
Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc. announced that Atlanta-based Shepherd Center has commenced enrolment for the Phase I/IIa clinical trial of AST-OPC1 (oligodendrocyte progenitor cells) in newly injured patients with sensory and motor complete cervical spinal cord injury. [Asterias Biotherapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

Feinstein Institute Researcher to Receive Potamkin Prize for Alzheimer’s Research
The American Academy of Neurology and the American Brain Foundation will present the 2015 Potamkin Prize for Research in Pick’s, Alzheimer’s and Related Diseases to Peter Davies, PhD, investigator at The Feinstein Institute for Medical Research. [North Shore-LIJ Health Systems] Press Release

From our sponsor: Pluripotent cell isolation for regenerative medicine. Request a free wallchart from Nature.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 2015 World Stem Cell Summit (WSCS15)
December 10-12, 2015
Atlanta, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Manufacturing Manager – Cell Therapy (Opexa Therapeutics)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Neural Progenitor Cell Differentiation (Massachusetts Institute of Technology)

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Circuitry in Drosophila (HHMI Janelia Research Campus)

Research Fellow/Research Associate – Neural Circuits (Nanyang Technological University)

Assistant Professor – Neuroscience (Georgia State University)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Assistant/Associate Professor – Gastroenterology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)


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