Volume 9.07 | Feb 25

Neural Cell News 9.07 February 25, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
New Brain Mapping Reveals Unknown Cell Types
Using a process known as single cell sequencing, scientists have produced a detailed map of cortical cell types and the genes active within them. The study marks the first time this method of analysis has been used on such a large scale on such complex tissue. The team studied over three thousand cells, one at a time, and even managed to identify a number of hitherto unknown types. [Press release from Karolinska Institute discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster "Neural Stem Cells" Awaits
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Directional Notch Trafficking in ​Sara Endosomes during Asymmetric Cell Division in the Spinal Cord
Researchers showed that, during mitosis of neural precursors in zebrafish, directional trafficking of ​Sara endosomes to one of the daughters can function as a determinant. In asymmetric lineages, where one daughter cell becomes a neuron whereas the other divides again to give rise to two neurons, they found that the daughter that inherits most of the ​Sara endosomes acquires the latter fate. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract

Valproic Acid Enhances Neuronal Differentiation of Sympathoadrenal Progenitor Cells
Scientists studied the epigenetic effects of valproic acid in two culture conditions: suspension conditions aimed to expand adrenomedullary sympathoadrenal progenitors within free-floating chromospheres, and adherent cell cultures optimized to derive neurons. [Mol Psych] Abstract

In Vivo Odorant Response Properties of Migrating Adult-Born Neurons in the Mouse Olfactory Bulb
In vivo two-photon imaging of retrovirally labelled adult-born juxtaglomerular neurons (JGNs) reveals that ~90% of the cells arrive at the glomerular layer after day post injection (DPI) seven. After arrival, adult-born JGNs are still migrating, but at DPI nine, 52% of them have odor-evoked Ca2+ signals. [Nat Commun]
Abstract | Press Release

Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor Receptor 3 Controls Neural Stem Cell Activation in Mice and Humans
Researchers showed that adult hippocampal neural stem cells (NSCs) express vascular endothelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) 3 and its ligand VEGF-C, which activates quiescent NSCs to enter the cell cycle and generate progenitor cells. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Chondroitin Sulfate Proteoglycans Negatively Modulate Spinal Cord Neural Precursor Cells by Signaling through LAR and RPTPσ and Modulation of the Rho/ROCK Pathway
Using in vitro models recapitulating the extracellular matrix of spinal cord injury, scientists investigated the direct role of chondroitin sulfate proteoglycans (CSPGs) in modulating the properties of adult spinal cord neural precursor cells (NPCs). They showed that CSPGs significantly decrease NPCs growth, attachment, survival, proliferation and oligodendrocytes differentiation. [Stem Cells] Abstract

APP Intracellular Domain Acts as a Transcriptional Regulator of miR-663 Suppressing Neuronal Differentiation
Using genome-wide chromatin immunoprecipitation approaches, scientists found that amyloid precursor protein (APP) intracellular domain is specifically recruited to the regulatory regions of several microRNA genes, and acts as a transcriptional regulator for miR-663, miR-3648 and miR-3687 in human neural stem cells. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

The Chromatin-Modifying Protein HMGA2 Promotes Atypical Teratoid/Rhabdoid Cell Tumorigenicity
Researchers used lentiviral short-hairpin RNA to suppress high-mobility group atypical teratoid (AT)-hook 2 (HMGA2) in AT/rhabdoid tumor cell lines and found that loss of HMGA2 led to decreased cell growth, proliferation, and colony formation and increased apoptosis. [J Neuropathol Exp Neurol]
Abstract | Press Release

Identification and Characterization of Secondary Neural Tube-Derived Embryonic Neural Stem Cells In Vitro
Researchers addressed whether the embryonic tail contains neural stem cells (NSCs), namely secondary NSCs, with the potential for self-renewal in vitro. Using in vitro neurosphere assays, neurospheres readily formed at the rosette and neural-tube levels, but less frequently at the tail bud tip level. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Kuwanon V Inhibits Proliferation, Promotes Cell Survival and Increases Neurogenesis of Neural Stem Cells
Researchers screened natural compounds to identify molecules that are effective on neural stem cells (NSCs) cell fate determination. They found that Kuwanon V, which was isolated from the mulberry tree root, increased neurogenesis in rat NSCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

Integrin-Associated Protein Promotes Neuronal Differentiation of Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells
Researchers established a culture system in which the neurogenic potential of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) is decreased in a time-dependent manner, so that short-term-cultured NSPCs differentiate into more neurons compared with long-term-cultured NSPCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

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REVIEWS
The Evolution of Early Neurogenesis
The authors divide early neurogenesis into discrete elements, including origin, pattern, proliferation, and movement of neuronal progenitors, which are controlled by conserved gene cassettes. They review these neurogenetic mechanisms in representatives of the different metazoan clades. [Dev Cell] Full Article

Reactive Astrocytes and Stem Cells in Spinal Cord Injury: Good Guys or Bad Guys?
Investigators focus on the dual opposing roles of reactive astrocytes in spinal cord injury and how they contribute to the creation of a permissive environment when combined with transplanted cells as the influential components for a local regenerative niche. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Adult Neurogenesis: A Substrate for Experience-Dependent Change
Experience-dependent changes in the production and function of new neurons may serve as a means to fine-tune the hippocampus to the predicted environment. The authors discuss this possibility along with the argument that more naturalistic experimental conditions may be a necessary step toward understanding the adaptive significance of neurons born in the adult brain. [Trends Cog Sci] Abstract | Press Release

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
DelMar Pharmaceuticals to Present Clinical and Preclinical Abstracts for VAL-083
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that it will be presenting three abstracts based on clinical and preclinical research with its lead product candidate VAL-083 (dianhydrogalactitol). The company’s clinical abstract number 1201, entitled, “Phase I/II study of dianhydrogalactitol in patients with recurrent malignant glioma” has been accepted for presentation. [Press release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing research to be presented at the 106th Annual Meeting of the American Association for Cancer Research (AACR), Philadelphia] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Stanley Center at the Broad Institute and New York Stem Cell Foundation Partner to Develop Stem Cell Resource for Schizophrenia and Psychiatric Diseases
The New York Stem Cell Foundation and the Stanley Center at the Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard are partnering to create a foundational stem cell resource to study psychiatric disorders through the production of induced pluripotent stem cell lines from individuals with schizophrenia and other psychiatric disorders. [Broad Institute] Press Release

UCSF Receives $100 Million Gift to Advance Health Sciences Mission
UC San Francisco has received a $100 million gift from visionary philanthropist Charles F. “Chuck” Feeney to support its new Mission Bay hospitals, world-class faculty and students, and research programs focused on the neurosciences and aging. [University of California, San Francisco] Press Release

NW Bio’s Phase III Trial of DCVax®-L for GBM Brain Cancer Approved to Proceed in Canada and Under Way at Two Sites
Northwest Biotherapeutics announced that the Company’s ongoing Phase III clinical trial of DCVax-L for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) brain cancer has been approved by Health Canada to proceed in Canada, has completed the approval processes at two sites, and is under way screening patients for enrolment. [Northwest Biotherapeutics] Press Release

Neurotrope Announces Positive Top-Line Results From Its Phase IIa Study of Bryostatin-1 in Alzheimer’s Disease
Neurotrope, Inc. announced positive top-line results from its randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, single dose Phase IIa clinical trial evaluating bryostatin-1 for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. [Neurotrope, Inc.] Press Release

Celldex’s Rindopepimut (Rintega®) Receives FDA Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the Treatment of Adult Patients with EGFRvIII-Positive Glioblastoma
Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Rintega® Breakthrough Therapy Designation for the treatment of adult patients with EGFRvIII-positive glioblastoma. [Celldex Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 17th International Neuroscience Winter Conference
April 7-11, 2015
Solden, Austria

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Assistant Professor – Neuroscience (Georgia State University)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

PhD Position – Molecular Mechanism of Cell Fate Determination (Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR)

Research Associate – Autophagy in Brain Cancer Pathogenesis (University College London)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Assistant/Associate Professor – Gastroenterology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prion Research (Van Andel Research Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – CNS Inflammation (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation Governing Cancer Cell Behavior (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wnt Signaling in Development and Disease (Van Andel Research Institute)


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