Volume 9.06 | Feb 18

Neural Cell News 9.06 February 18, 2015
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Mulling the Marijuana Munchies: How the Brain Flips the Hunger Switch
The “munchies,” or that uncontrollable urge to eat after using marijuana, appear to be driven by neurons in the brain that are normally involved in suppressing appetite, according to a new study. [Press release from Yale University discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Labeling of Active Neural Circuits In Vivo with Designed Calcium Integrators
Scientists designed a fluorescent sensor, CaMPARI, that combines the genetic targetability and quantitative link to neural activity of genetically encoded calcium indicators with the permanent, large-scale labeling of immediate early genes, allowing a temporally precise “activity snapshot” of a large tissue volume. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Neuronal Death Induced by Misfolded Prion Protein Is Due to NAD+ Depletion and Can Be Relieved In Vitro and In Vivo by NAD+ Replenishment
Researchers show that abnormal autophagy activation and neuronal demise is due to severe, neuron-specific, nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+) depletion. [Brain] Abstract | Press Release

Stem Cell Transplantation Reverses Chemotherapy-Induced Cognitive Dysfunction
Scientists showed that chronic cyclophosphamide treatment induced significant performance-based decrements on behavioral tasks designed to interrogate hippocampal and cortical function. In transplanted animals, grafted cells survived and differentiated along neuronal and astroglial lineages, where improved cognition was associated with reduced neuroinflammation and enhanced host dendritic arborization. [Cancer Res]
Abstract | Press Release

Elevated In Vivo Levels of a Single Transcription Factor Directly Convert Satellite Glia into Oligodendrocyte-Like Cells
Using a transgenic approach researchers increased levels of the transcription factor Sox10 throughout the mouse embryo and thereby prompted Fabp7-positive glial cells in dorsal root ganglia of the peripheral nervous system to convert into cells with oligodendrocyte characteristics including myelin gene expression. [PLoS Genet] Full Article

Spontaneous Neurotransmitter Release Shapes Dendritic Arbors via Long-Range Activation of NMDA Receptors
Researchers showed that high-level, spontaneous axonal release of the neurotransmitter glutamate can signal at long range to NMDA receptors on developing dendrites, prior to synapse formation and axodendritic contact. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Parkin-Mediated Mitophagy in Mutant hAPP Neurons and Alzheimer’s Disease Patient Brains
Scientists revealed that Parkin-mediated mitophagy is robustly induced in mutant hAPP neurons and Alzheimer’s disease patient brains. In the absence of mitochondrial membrane potential dissipation reagents, hAPP neurons exhibit increased recruitment of cytosolic Parkin to depolarized mitochondria. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract

TGF-β Regulates Survivin to Affect Cell Cycle and the Expression of EGFR and MMP9 in Glioblastoma
Researchers investigated the potential associations between transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) and survivin in the glioblastoma U87 cell line. They observed a concentration- and time-dependent increase of survivin expression after treatment with TGF-β1. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Static Stretch Affects Neural Stem Cell Differentiation in an Extracellular Matrix-Dependent Manner
Scientists found static stretch specifically impacts neural stem and progenitor cell differentiation into oligodendrocytes, but not neurons or astrocytes, and this effect is dependent on particular extracellular matrix-integrin linkages. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Targeting Cyclin D3/CDK6 Activity for Treatment of Parkinson’s Disease
Researchers investigated the effects of two histone deacetylase inhibitors, suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid and sodium butyrate, and the m-TOR inhibitor rapamycin on cell viability and cyclin D3/CDK6 activity. The potential neuroprotective action of these drugs was evaluated in 6-hydroxy-dopamine treated dopaminergic SH-SY5Y cells and primary rat mesencephalic cultures. [J Neurochem] Abstract

1,25-Dihydroxyvitamin D3 Enhances Neural Stem Cell Proliferation and Oligodendrocyte Differentiation
Scientists investigated the effect of various concentrations of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 on neural stem cell proliferation and their differentiation to oligodendrocytes, the myelinating cells. [Exp Mol Pathol] Abstract

G Protein Coupled Receptor 50 Promotes Self-Renewal and Neuronal Differentiation of Embryonic Neural Progenitor Cells through Regulation of Notch and Wnt/β-Catenin Signalings
Researchers show GPR50 is expressed by neural progenitor cells (NPCs) in the ventricular zone of embryonic brain. Knockdown of GPR50 with a small interfering RNA decreased self-renewal and neuronal differentiation, but not glial differentiation of NPCs. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
 
REVIEWS
The Relation between α-Synuclein and Microglia in Parkinson’s Disease: Recent Developments
The authors revise the most recent findings and developments with regard to alpha-synuclein and microglia in Parkinson’s disease. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Microgliosis in the Injured Brain: Infiltrating Cells and Reactive Microglia Both Play a Role
Available evidence suggests that multiple sources of microglia may exist under various neurological conditions. The authors compare the prevalent views and supporting evidence from different experimental models and provide an overview on the origins of microgliosis. [Neuroscientist] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Voyager Therapeutics and Genzyme Announce Major Strategic Collaboration to Develop and Commercialize Novel AAV Gene Therapies for Patients with CNS Disorders
Voyager Therapeutics and Genzyme announced a major strategic collaboration to discover, develop and commercialize novel gene therapies for severe central nervous system (CNS) disorders. [Genzyme Corporation] Press Release

Kaul Foundation Donates $7 Million for UAB Personalized Medicine Institute
The Hugh Kaul Foundation has donated $7 million to the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) to establish the Hugh Kaul Personalized Medicine Institute at UAB. [University of Alabama at Birmingham]
Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Keystone Symposium – Pathways of Neurodevelopmental Disorders
March 16-20, 2015
Tahoe City, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Position – Molecular Mechanism of Cell Fate Determination (Institute of Molecular Genetics of the ASCR)

Research Technologist, Neural (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Autophagy in Brain Cancer Pathogenesis (University College London)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Assistant/Associate Professor – Gastroenterology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prion Research (Van Andel Research Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – CNS Inflammation (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation Governing Cancer Cell Behavior (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wnt Signaling in Development and Disease (Van Andel Research Institute)


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