Volume 9.05 | Feb 11

Neural Cell News 9.05 February 11, 2015
Neural Cell News
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The Brain’s Social Network: Nerve Cells Interact Like Friends on Facebook
Neurons in the brain are wired like a social network, report researchers. Each nerve cell has links with many others, but the strongest bonds form between the few cells most similar to each other. [Press release from Biozentrum, University of Basel discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Oligodendrocyte Progenitors Remyelinate the Brain and Rescue Behavioral Deficits following Radiation
Scientists demonstrate the efficient derivation and prospective isolation of human oligodendrocyte progenitors, which, upon transplantation, migrate throughout the major white matter tracts resulting in both structural and functional repair. [Cell Stem Cell] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

The Glia-Derived Alarmin IL-33 Orchestrates the Immune Response and Promotes Recovery following CNS Injury
Researchers identified the nuclear alarmin, interleukin (IL)-33, as an important regulator of the innate immune response after CNS injury. IL-33 is expressed widely throughout the healthy brain and is concentrated in white matter due to predominant expression in post-mitotic oligodendrocytes. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

A Leak Pathway for Luminal Protons in Endosomes Drives Oncogenic Signaling in Glioblastoma
In glioblastoma, ​NHE9 expression is associated with stem/progenitor characteristics, radiochemoresistance, poor prognosis and invasive growth in vitro and in vivo. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

EGFRvIII-Mediated Transactivation of Receptor Tyrosine Kinases in Glioma: Mechanism and Therapeutic Implications
Researchers show that MET transactivation in U87MG human glioma cells in vitro is proportional to EGFRvIII activity and involves MET heterodimerization associated with a focal adhesion kinase scaffold. [Oncogene] Abstract

Genomic Mosaicism with Increased Amyloid Precursor Protein (APP) Gene Copy Number in Single Neurons from Sporadic Alzheimer’s Disease Brains
Scientists report altered genomic mosaicism in single, sporadic Alzheimer’s disease neurons characterized by increases in DNA content and APP gene copy number. [eLife] Full Article | Press Release

Transferable Neuronal Mini-Cultures to Accelerate Screening in Primary and Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neurons
Researchers validated the screening utility of mini-cultures for both mouse neurons and human induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neurons by successfully detecting disease-related defects in synaptic transmission and identifying candidate small molecule therapeutics. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Neuronal Apoptosis Induced by Selective Inhibition of Rac GTPase versus Global Suppression of Rho family GTPases Is Mediated by Alterations in Distinct Mitogen-Activated Protein Kinase Signaling Cascades
Scientists compared the effects of Clostridium difficile toxin B (ToxB) to a selective inhibitor of the Rac-specific guanine nucleotide exchange factors, Tiam1 and Trio. In a manner similar to ToxB, selective inhibition of Rac induces cerebellar granule neuron apoptosis that is associated with enhanced caspase-3 activation and reduced phosphorylation of the Rac effector, p21-activated kinase. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Multipotent Stem Cell Factor UGS148 Is a Marker for Tanycytes in the Adult Hypothalamus
Researchers demonstrate that UGS148 is highly expressed in embryonic neural stem cells as well as, albeit at low level, in the adult neurogenic niches, the subventricular zone and the hippocampal dentate gyrus. [Mol Cell Neurosci] Abstract

The Unfolded Protein Response in the Therapeutic Effect of Hydroxy-DHA against Alzheimer’s Disease
Researchers show that 2-hydroxy-DHA, a docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) derivate that restores cognitive function in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease, modulates unfolded protein response and autophagy in differentiated neuron-like SH-SY5Y cells. [Apoptosis] Abstract

The Deubiquitinating Enzyme UBPy/USP8 Interacts with TrkA and Inhibits Neuronal Differentiation in PC12 Cells
Scientists demonstrate that in PC12 cells the tropomyosin-related kinase A (TrkA) receptor interacts with the deubiquitinating enzyme USP8/UBPy in a nerve growth factor-dependent manner, and that it is deubiquitinated in vivo and in vitro by USP8. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Angiotensin II Triggers Apoptosis via Enhancement of NADPH Oxidase-Dependent Oxidative Stress in a Dopaminergic Neuronal Cell Line
By using CATH.a cells, a dopaminergic neuronal cell line stably expressing angiotensin II (Ang II) type 1 receptor and angiotensin II type 2 receptor, scientists show that Ang II treatment triggered cell apoptosis in a dose-dependent manner, providing the first evidence that apoptotic cell death contributed to the dopaminergic cell loss induced by Ang II. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Cellular Memory of Hypoxia Elicits Neuroblastoma Metastasis and Enables Invasion by Non-Aggressive Neighboring Cells
Using live imaging in a chick embryo model, scientists demonstrate that the exposure of neuroblastoma cells to 1% oxygen for three days was capable of enabling cell migration towards blood vessels, slowing down their velocity within blood vessels to facilitate extravasation and promoting cell proliferation in primary and secondary sites. [Oncogenesis] Full Article | Press Release

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Cellular Factors Modulating the Mechanism of Tau Protein Aggregation
The authors discuss the known cellular factors that affect tau aggregation, from post-translational modifications to molecular chaperones. [Cell Mol Life Sci] Abstract

Redox-Regulated Fate of Neural Stem Progenitor Cells
The authors summarize recent knowledge on the active role of reactive oxygen species, redox couples and redox-signaling mechanisms on plasticity and function of neural stem and progenitor cells focusing on NAD(P)+/NAD(P)H-mediated processes. [Biochim Biophys Acta] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
LYSOGENE, University of Massachusetts Medical School and Auburn University Announce Collaboration Agreement
LYSOGENE announced that it has entered into a strategic collaboration with the University of Massachusetts Medical School (UMMS) and Auburn University (AU). Through the collaboration, LYSOGENE, UMMS and AU will develop IND-supporting preclinical studies in GM1-gangliosidosis, a rare, inherited disorder characterized by severe neurological impairment, using adeno-associated virus gene therapy technology. [LYSOGENE]
Press Release

Alkermes Announces Positive Topline Results from Phase I Study of ALKS 8700 for Treatment of Multiple Sclerosis
Alkermes plc announced positive topline results from a Phase I, randomized, double-blind clinical study of ALKS 8700, a novel monomethyl fumarate molecule in development for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. [Alkermes plc] Press Release

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The Discovery of Alzheimer’s Disease Treatment by 2025 Will Save the U.S. $220 Billion within First Five Years
The Alzheimer’s Association report, Changing the Trajectory of Alzheimer’s Disease: How a Treatment by 2025 Saves Lives and Dollars, takes an in-depth look at the potential lives saved and positive economic impact if a hypothetical treatment that effectively delays the onset of Alzheimer’s disease is discovered and made available to Americans by 2025. [Alzheimer’s Association] Editorial | Report

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Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Keystone Symposium – Transcriptional and Epigenetic Influences on Stem Cell States
March 23-28, 2015
Steamboat Springs, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Research Associate – Autophagy in Brain Cancer Pathogenesis (University College London)

Research Technologist, Neural (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Director – Vector Production (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Senior Process Development Engineer (Sangamo BioSciences, Inc.)

Assistant/Associate Professor – Gastroenterology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Prion Research (Van Andel Research Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – CNS Inflammation (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation Governing Cancer Cell Behavior (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wnt Signaling in Development and Disease (Van Andel Research Institute)

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