Volume 9.02 | Jan 21

Neural Cell News 9.02 January 21, 2015
Neural Cell News
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Scientists Identify a Novel Precursor to Neurodegeneration
Alteration of lipid metabolism in brain cells promotes the formation of lipid droplets that presage the loss of neurons, said researchers. They connected the presence of lipid droplet accumulation in the glia of specific mutants as a harbinger of neurodegeneration. [Press release from Baylor College of Medicine discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Adhesion G Protein-Coupled Receptor ​GPR56 Is a Cell-Autonomous Regulator of Oligodendrocyte Development
Scientists demonstrate that loss of ​Gpr56 leads to hypomyelination of the central nervous system in mice. ​GPR56 levels are abundant throughout early stages of oligodendrocyte development, but are downregulated in myelinating oligodendrocytes. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

An Aberrant Sugar Modification of BACE1 Blocks its Lysosomal Targeting in Alzheimer’s Disease
Researchers show that β-site amyloid precursor protein cleaving enzyme-1 (BACE1) is modified with bisecting N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc), a sugar modification highly expressed in brain, and demonstrate that Alzheimer’s disease patients have higher levels of bisecting GlcNAc on BACE1. [EMBO Mol Med]
Full Article | Press Release

Prolonged Ezh2 Depletion in Glioblastoma Causes a Robust Switch in Cell Fate Resulting in Tumor Progression
Researchers provide insight about the effects of prolonged Ezh2 inhibition in glioblastoma using preclinical mouse models and primary tumor-derived human glioblastoma cell lines. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Rapid and Efficient Direct Conversion of Human Adult Somatic Cells into Neural Stem Cells by HMGA2/let-7b
Using microRNA expression profile analyses, researchers showed that let-7 microRNA has critical roles for the formation of PAX6/NESTIN-positive colonies from human adult fibroblasts and the proliferation and self-renewal of human induced neural stem cells. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Stromal SLIT2 Impacts on Pancreatic Cancer-Associated Neural Remodeling
Scientists showed that cancer-associated fibroblast-secreted SLIT2 increases neurite outgrowth from dorsal root ganglia neurons as well as from Schwann cell migration/proliferation by modulating N-cadherin/β-catenin signaling. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Astrocytes Increase ATP Exocytosis Mediated Calcium Signaling in Response to Microgroove Structures
A high throughput microscale platform was developed to study astrocyte cell behavior on micropatterned surfaces containing 1 μm spacing grooves with a depth of 250 or 500 nm. Significant changes in cell and nuclear elongation and alignment on patterned surfaces were observed, compared to on flat surfaces. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Damage Effect of Interleukin (IL)-23 on Oxygen-Glucose Deprived Cells of the Neurovascular Unit via IL-23 Receptor
Scientists explored the potential effect of IL-23 on cells of the neurovascular unit under an oxygen-glucose deprivation condition and the role of IL-23R in IL-23-mediated effect. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Brain Pericyte-Derived Soluble Factors Enhance Insulin Sensitivity in GT1-7 Hypothalamic Neurons
Scientists investigated whether brain pericytes could affect hypothalamic neuronal insulin signaling. Pericyte-conditioned medium, but not astrocyte- or aortic smooth muscle cell-conditioned medium, increased the insulin-stimulated phosphorylation of Akt in GT1-7 cells in a concentration-dependent manner. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

EZH2 Protects Glioma Stem Cells from Radiation-Induced Cell Death in a MELK/FOXM1-Dependent Manner
Researchers demonstrate that the catalytic subunit of Polycomb repressive complex 2, EZH2, is targeted by the MELK-FOXM1 complex, which in turn promotes resistance to radiation in glioblastoma-derived tumorigenic stem-like cells. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article

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Potential of Neural Stem Cell-Based Therapies for Alzheimer’s Disease
The authors review the therapeutic potential of both endogenous and exogenous neural stem cells in the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and the challenges to application of stem cells in AD treatment, particularly those from the microenvironmental alterations, in the hope of providing more information for future research in exploiting stem cell-based therapies for AD. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract

Differential Roles of M1 and M2 Microglia in Neurodegenerative Diseases
The authors focus on the potential role of M1 and M2 microglia and the dynamic changes of M1/M2 phenotypes that are critically associated with the neurodegenerative diseases. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
PsychoGenics Obtains a License to the McGill-R-Thy1-APP Rat Model of Alzheimer’s Disease
PsychoGenics announced that it has obtained a license from McGill University to its McGill-R-Thy1-APP rat model of Alzheimer’s disease, expressing human APP with the Swedish and Indiana mutations under the control of the murine-Thy-1 promoter. [PsychoGenics] Press Release

Treeway Announces License and Collaboration Agreement with uniQure to Develop a Gene Therapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
Treeway B.V. have announced a collaboration with uniQure N.V. to develop a gene therapy treatment for ALS. Under the terms of the licensing and collaboration agreement, uniQure has granted Treeway an exclusive license in this field to uniQure’s relevant AAV5 viral vector and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor intellectual property. [Treeway B.V.] Press Release

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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cellular Therapy 2015 – 8th International Symposium on the Clinical Use of Cellular Products
March 19-20, 2015
Erlangen, Germany

NEW 2nd International Congress on Stem Cell and Cellular Therapies (ICSCCT)
October 15-18, 2015
Antalya, Turkey

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Director (California Institute for Regenerative Medicine)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Prion Research (Van Andel Research Institute)

Faculty Position – Neuroscience (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – CNS Inflammation (Rutgers University)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Post-Transcriptional Gene Regulation Governing Cancer Cell Behavior (Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Epigenetic Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes of Developmental Neurotoxicity (Thomas Jefferson University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Wnt Signaling in Development and Disease (Van Andel Research Institute)

Tenure-Track Position – Cellular/Molecular Neuroscience (Carnegie Mellon University)

Postdoctoral Position – Morphogenetic Signaling Pathways in Development and Disease (University of Rochester Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Development (National Institutes of Health)

Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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