Volume 8.48 | Dec 10

Neural Cell News 8.48 December 10, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Blocking Receptor in Brain’s Immune Cells Counters Alzheimer’s in Mice
Brain cells called microglia chew up toxic substances and cell debris, calm inflammation and make nerve-cell-nurturing substances. New research shows that keeping them on the job may prevent neurodegeneration. [Press release from Stanford Medicine discussing online publication in The Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
ulture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
A BCL6/BCOR/SIRT1 Complex Triggers Neurogenesis and Suppresses Medulloblastoma by Repressing Sonic Hedgehog Signaling
Scientists identified BCL6, a transcriptional repressor and lymphoma oncoprotein, as a pivotal factor required for neurogenesis and tumor suppression of medulloblastoma (MB). BCL6 is necessary for and capable of preventing the development of GNP-derived MB in mice, and can block the growth of human MB cells in vitro. [Cancer Cell] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Purkinje Neuron Ca2+ Influx Reduction Rescues Ataxia in SCA28 Model
Researchers determined that mitochondria in cultured Afg3l2-deficient Purkinje cells (PCs) ineffectively buffer evoked Ca2+ peaks, resulting in enhanced cytoplasmic Ca2+ concentrations, which subsequently triggers dark degeneration of PC. [J Clin Invest] Full Article

Extrachromosomal Driver Mutations in Glioblastoma and Low-Grade Glioma
Alteration of the number of copies of double minutes (DMs) with oncogenic ​EGFR mutations in response to tyrosine kinase inhibitors is a novel adaptive mechanism of glioblastoma. Scientists provide evidence that such mutations in DMs, called here amplification-linked extrachromosomal mutations, originate extrachromosomally and could therefore be completely eliminated from the cancer cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

Cortical Plasticity Induced by Transplantation of Embryonic Somatostatin or Parvalbumin Interneurons
Researchers used medial ganglionic eminence transplantation carrying a conditional allele of diphtheria toxin alpha subunit and cell-specific expression of Cre recombinase to deplete parvalbumin or somatostatin-expressing interneurons selectively and to investigate the contributions of each of these types of interneurons to ocular dominance plasticity. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Activation of α7 Nicotinic Acetylcholine Receptors Protects Astrocytes against Oxidative Stress-Induced Apoptosis: Implications for Parkinson’s Disease
Researchers showed that nicotine exerts a protective effect on H2O2-induced astrocyte apoptosis and glial cell-derived neurotrophic factor downregulation, and this effect was abolished by an α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor-selective antagonist. [Neuropharmacology] Abstract

Neural Progenitor Cell Transplantation Promotes Neuroprotection, Enhances Hippocampal Neurogenesis, and Improves Cognitive Outcomes after Traumatic Brain Injury
Neural progenitor cells (NPCs) displayed processes that extended into several remote structures, including the hippocampus and contralateral cortex. Both GFP- and human multineurotrophin-NPCs conferred significant preservation of pericontusional host tissues and enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis. [Exp Neurol] Abstract

Third Harmonic Generation Microscopy as a Reliable Diagnostic Tool for Evaluating Lipid Body Modification during Cell Activation: The Example of BV-2 Microglia Cells
Scientists showed that third harmonic generation (THG) imaging could discriminate between the control versus activated state of BV-2 cells not only as to THG signal intensity but also as to THG signal area, while verifying once more that the majority of the intracellular detected signal corresponds to lipid bodies. [J Struct Biol] Abstract

β-Catenin Is Involved in Bex2 Down-Regulation Induced Glioma Cell Invasion/Migration Inhibition
Scientists reported that brain expressed X-linked gene 2 (Bex2) down-regulation inhibited glioma cell migration and invasion by decreasing the nucleus and cytoplasm protein level of β-catenin. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

miR-21 and miR-222 Inhibit Apoptosis of Adult Dorsal Root Ganglion Neurons by Repressing TIMP3 following Sciatic Nerve Injury
Over-expression of microRNA (miR)-21 and miR-222 inhibited cell apoptosis and enhanced cell viability in cultured dorsal root ganglion neurons. IL-6 could induce up-regulation of miR-21 expression. [Neurosci Lett] Abstract

Molecular Mechanisms Regulating the Defects in Fragile X Syndrome Neurons Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Researchers revealed aberrant regulation of neural differentiation and axon guidance genes in fragile X syndrome (FXS)-derived neurons, which are regulated by the RE-1 silencing transcription factor (REST). Moreover, they found REST to be elevated in FXS-derived neurons. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article

Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
Glial Cell Interactions and Glaucoma
The authors describe new advances in our understanding of the role of glial cells in the pathogenesis of glaucoma. [Curr Opin Ophthalmol] Abstract

Prion-Like Mechanisms of TDP-43 in ALS
The authors compare the prion-like mechanisms of TDP-43 to the clinical and biological nature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) in order to investigate how this protein could be responsible for some of the characteristic properties of the disease. [Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol] Abstract | Full Article

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Brain-Heart Connection: U-M Scientists Take On Deadly Epilepsy with New $3.3M Grant
For children and adults with epilepsy, the possibility of dying suddenly and without warning looms in the background all the time – yet scientists and doctors still don’t know why it occurs. Researchers from the University of Michigan Medical School and colleagues around the nation will try to get to the heart of this mystery, and perhaps find new ways to spot those most at risk. A new $3.3 million grant will help fuel the U-M work. [University of Michigan] Press Release

Paul G. Allen to Give $100 Million to Create Cell Science Institute
Philanthropist and entrepreneur Paul G. Allen announced a commitment of $100 million to create the Allen Institute for Cell Science in Seattle. Founded to investigate and model the complex living machinery of cells, the nonprofit Allen Institute for Cell Science and its inaugural project, the Allen Cell Observatory, will accelerate disease research around the world by creating and sharing reagents, data and dynamic, predictive models of cells. [Allen Institute for Cell Science] Press Release

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Faculty Positions – Personalized Medicine (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

Associate/Full Professor – Rudi Schmid Endowed Chair in Neuroscience (University of California, San Francisco)

Research Technologist – Media Development (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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