Volume 8.44 | Nov 12

Neural Cell News 8.44 November 12, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Production of Human Motor Neurons from Stem Cells Is Gaining Speed
Scientists have recently developed a new approach to better control the differentiation of human pluripotent stem cells, and thus produce different populations of motor neurons from these cells in only 14 days. [Press release from Inserm discussing online prepublication in Nature Biotechnology] Press Release | Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Dynamics of Oligodendrocyte Generation and Myelination in the Human Brain
Investigators assessed the dynamics of oligodendrocyte generation and myelination in the human brain. They conclude that oligodendrocyte turnover contributes minimally to myelin modulation in human white matter and that this instead may be carried out by mature oligodendrocytes, which may facilitate rapid neural plasticity. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Cells of Origin in the Embryonic Nerve Roots for NF1-Associated Plexiform Neurofibroma
Using cell-lineage tracing, scientists identified a population of GAP43+ PLP+ precursors in embryonic nerve roots as the cells of origin for neurofibromatosis type 1 tumors and report a non-germline neurofibroma model for preclinical drug screening to identify effective therapies. [Cancer Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

hPSC-Derived Maturing GABAergic Interneurons Ameliorate Seizures and Abnormal Behavior in Epileptic Mice
Researchers demonstrate that human pluripotent stem cell (hPSC)-derived maturing GABAergic interneurons (mGINs) migrate extensively and integrate into dysfunctional circuitry of the epileptic mouse brain. Using optogenetic approaches, they found that grafted mGINs generate inhibitory postsynaptic responses in host hippocampal neurons. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Human ESC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Show Similar Preclinical Efficacy and Potency to Fetal Neurons when Grafted in a Rat Model of Parkinson’s Disease
The authors provide a comprehensive preclinical assessment of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived midbrain dopamine neurons in a rat model of Parkinson’s disease. They show that hESC-derived dopamine neurons can project sufficiently long distances for use in humans, fully regenerate midbrain-to-forebrain projections, and innervate correct target structures. [Cell Stem Cell]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Modeling Non-Syndromic Autism and the Impact of TRPC6 Disruption in Human Neurons
Using multiple models, such as dental pulp cells, induced pluripotent stem cell-derived neuronal cells and mouse models, investigators demonstrate that TRPC6 reduction or haploinsufficiency leads to altered neuronal development, morphology and function. [Mol Psychiatry] Abstract | Press Release

​Drp1 Inhibition Attenuates Neurotoxicity and ​Dopamine Release Deficits In Vivo
Scientists show that inhibition of the mitochondrial fission GTPase ​dynamin-related protein-1 (​Drp1) using gene-based and small-molecule approaches attenuates neurotoxicity and restores pre-existing striatal ​dopamine release deficits in animal models of Parkinson’s disease. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

iPSC-Derived Dopamine Neurons Reveal Differences between Monozygotic Twins Discordant for Parkinson’s Disease
Investigators applied induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for Parkinson’s disease modeling using monozygotic twins’ fibroblasts to evaluate and dissect the genetic and nongenetic contributions. Utilizing fluorescence-activated cell sorting, they obtained a homogenous population of “footprint-free” iPSC-derived midbrain dopaminergic neurons. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Direct Lineage Conversion of Adult Mouse Liver Cells and B Lymphocytes to Neural Stem Cells
Researchers used transduction of doxycycline-inducible transcription factors to generate stable tripotent neural stem cells (NSCs). The induced NSCs maintained their characteristics in the absence of exogenous factor expression and were transcriptionally, epigenetically, and functionally similar to primary brain-derived NSCs. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Culture primary neurons independent of substrate with NeuroCult™ SM2
Microglial and Macrophage Polarization – New Prospects for Brain Repair
The authors highlight the specific roles of polarized microglial and macrophage populations in CNS repair after acute injury, and argue that therapeutic approaches targeting cerebral inflammation should shift from broad suppression of microglia and macrophages towards subtle adjustment of the balance between their phenotypes. [Nat Rev Neurol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

Don't miss ASGCT 18th Annual Meeting!
International Stem Cell Corporation’s Parkinson’s Program to Be Highlighted
International Stem Cell Corporation will present a summary of the preclinical dataset that forms the basis for the company’s regulatory submission in the Parkinson’s disease program. [Press release from International Stem Cell Corporation discussing research to be presented at Neuroscience 2014, Washington D.C.] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.
New Funding Speeds Identification of Drugs to Prevent Alzheimer’s
The National Institute on Aging of the National Institutes of Health has awarded $5.5 million in funding to continue and expand the first large-scale clinical trial, which is focused on dominantly inherited forms of Alzheimer’s disease. [Washington University in St. Louis] Press Release

Research Funding for Teen Brain and Nervous System Cancer
Scientists from Plymouth University Peninsula Schools of Medicine and Dentistry have been awarded a grant from young person’s cancer charity The Laura Crane Youth Cancer Trust to investigate a new drug-based treatment for a multi-tumor brain and nervous system cancer which affects teenagers and young adults. [Plymouth University] Press Release
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Cancer 2015
February 6-7, 2015
Kiev, Ukraine

NEW EMBO | EMBL Symposium: Frontiers in Stem Cells & Cancer
March 29-31, 2015
Heidelberg, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Scientist – Immunotherapy (Children’s Hospital of Eastern Ontario Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Developmental, Stem Cell, and/or Cancer Biology (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mitochondrial Science in Parkinson’s Disease (Haukeland University Hospital and University of Bergen)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Northwestern University)

Faculty Positions – Personalized Medicine (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

Associate/Full Professor – Rudi Schmid Endowed Chair in Neuroscience (University of California, San Francisco)

Tenure Track Positions – Neuroscience (Albert Einstein College of Medicine / Gottesman Stem Cell Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Research (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Postdoctoral Candidate – Dynamic Organization of Synapses (INSERM)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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