Volume 8.43 | Nov 5

Neural Cell News 8.43 November 5, 2014
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Reconstruction of a Patterned Piece of Spinal Cord in 3D Culture
Researchers demonstrate the in vitro growth of a piece of spinal cord in three dimensions from mouse embryonic stem cells. Correct spatial organization of motor neurons, interneurons and dorsal interneurons along the dorsal/ventral axis was observed. [Press release from TU Dresden discussing publication in Stem Cell Reports] Press Release | Full Article | Graphical Abstract
Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
NF1 Regulation of RAS/ERK Signaling Is Required for Appropriate Granule Neuron Progenitor Expansion and Migration in Cerebellar Development
Using mouse models to direct conditional NF1 ablation in either embryonic cerebellar progenitors or neonatal granule neuron progenitors, scientists show that neurofibromin is required for appropriate development of cerebellar folia layering and structure. [Genes Dev] Abstract

Cell Type-Specific Plasticity of Striatal Projection Neurons in Parkinsonism and L-DOPA-Induced Dyskinesia
Researchers report that indirect pathway spiny projection neurons intrinsic excitability and excitatory corticostriatal synaptic connectivity were lower in Parkinson’s disease models than normal; ​L-DOPA treatment restored these properties. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Huntingtin Promotes mTORC1 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Huntington’s Disease
Knocking out huntingtin (Htt) in mouse embryonic stem cells or human embryonic kidney cells attenuated amino acid-induced mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) complex 1 (mTORC1) activity, whereas overexpressing wild-type or poly-Q-expanded Htt in striatal neuronal cells increased basal mTOR activity. [Sci Signal] Abstract

Nuclear Protein C23 on the Cell Surface Plays an Important Role in Activation of CXCR4 Signaling in Glioblastoma
C23 and CXCR4 of U87 cell line were inhibited by anti-C23 and anti-CXCR4 antibodies, respectively; then C23 and CXCR4 siRNAs were used to knock down endogenous C23 and CXCR4, respectively. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Cystatin C Protects Neuronal Cells against Mutant Copper-Zinc Superoxide Dismutase-Mediated Toxicity
Scientists identified the neuroprotective activity of cystatin C (CysC) against amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-linked mutant Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase-mediated toxicity. They found that exogenously added CysC protected neuronal cells including primary cultured motor neurons. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

TLX Activates MMP-2, Promotes Self-Renewal of Tumor Spheres in Neuroblastoma and Correlates with Poor Patient Survival
Researchers show that Drosophila tailless homolog (TLX) is essential for the formation of tumor spheres in three different neuroblastoma cell lines, when grown in neural stem cell media. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Cellular Manganese Content Is Developmentally Regulated in Human Dopaminergic Neurons
Researchers hypothesized that small molecules that modulate intracellular manganese (Mn) could provide insight into cell-level Mn regulatory mechanisms. They performed a high throughput screen of 40,167 small molecules for modifiers of cellular Mn content in a mouse striatal neuron cell line. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Spinal Cord Injury Induces a Long-Lasting Upregulation of Interleukin-1β in Astrocytes around the Central Canal
Researchers show that spinal cord injury in rats increases interleukin-1β expression in astrocytes located around the spinal cord ependyma, a region that also holds a neurogenic potential. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Bag5 Protects Neuronal Cells from Amyloid β-Induced Cell Death
Scientists found that expression of Bcl-2 associated athanogene 5 (Bag5) is elevated in the brains of Alzheimer’s disease transgenic Tg2576 mice at both mRNA levels and proteins. In vitro experiments indicated that Aβ1-42 treatment led to the upregulation of Bag5 in a dose-dependent manner. [J Mol Neurosci] Abstract

SOX4 Inhibits GBM Cell Growth and Induces G0/G1 Cell Cycle Arrest through Akt-p53 Axis
Researchers investigated the role of SOX4 in glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). Cre/lox P system was used to generate gain or loss of SOX4 in GBM cells, and microarray analysis uncovered the regulation network of SOX4 in GBM cells. [BMC Neurol] Abstract | Full Article

Defining the Role of Oxygen Tension in Human Neural Progenitor Fate
Scientists show that low O2 tension and hypoxia-inducible factor activity instead promote appropriate human embryonic stem cell differentiation. Through gain- and loss-of-function studies, we implicate O2 tension as a modifier of a key cell fate decision, namely whether neural progenitors differentiate toward neurons or glia. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

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REVIEWS
Autophagy in Neuronal Cells: General Principles and Physiological and Pathological Functions
The current knowledge on the autophagic pathways and molecular mechanisms and regulation of autophagy is summarized in this review. The authors describe the physiological functions of macroautophagy and chaperone-mediated autophagy in neuronal cells. [Acta Neuropathol] Abstract

Alpha-Synuclein and Tau: Teammates in Neurodegeneration?
The accumulation of alpha-synuclein aggregates is the hallmark of Parkinson’s disease, and more generally of synucleinopathies. The accumulation of tau aggregates however is classically found in the brains of patients with dementia, and this type of neuropathological feature specifically defines the tauopathies. Researchers review the recent literature with respect to elucidating the possible links between alpha-synuclein and tau. [Mol Neurodegener] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Cancer Cell Fingerprints in the Blood May Speed Up Childhood Cancer Diagnosis
Newly-identified cancer cell fingerprints in the blood could one day help doctors diagnose a range of children’s cancers faster and more accurately. [Press release from Cancer Research UK discussing research presented at the National Cancer Research Institute (NCRI) Cancer Conference, Liverpool] Press Release | Abstract

From our sponsor: Pluripotent cell isolation for regenerative medicine. Request a free wallchart from Nature.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Teva and Active Biotech Announce Expansion of Laquinimod Clinical Development Program with New Trial in Primary Progressive Multiple Sclerosis and First Patient Screened in Huntington’s Disease Trial
Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd. and Active Biotech announced the expansion of the laquinimod clinical development program with the initiation of the ARPEGGIO trial, which will evaluate the potential of laquinimod to treat primary progressive multiple sclerosis. Additionally, Teva has screened the first patient in the LEGATO-HD trial, which will evaluate laquinimod in Huntington’s disease. [Teva Pharmaceutical Industries Ltd.]
Press Release

The ALS Association Triples Spending on Research Thanks to Ice Bucket Donations
The ALS Association announced it has developed a long-term strategy for leveraging the Ice Bucket Challenge donations it has received to advance its integrated mission of leading the fight to treat and cure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) through global research, care services and public policy. [The ALS Association]
Press Release

City of Hope Awarded $8 Million to Launch Stem Cell Therapy Clinic Focused on Fighting Incurable Disease
Identifying cures for currently incurable diseases and providing patients safe, fast, and potentially life-saving treatments is the focus of City of Hope’s new Alpha Clinic for Cell Therapy and Innovation. The clinic is funded by an $8 million, five-year grant from the California Institute for Regenerative Medicine. [City of Hope]
Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell & Gene Therapy Forum 2015
January 26-28, 2015
Washington DC, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Developmental, Stem Cell, and/or Cancer Biology (North Carolina State University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Mitochondrial Science in Parkinson’s Disease (Haukeland University Hospital and University of Bergen)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Northwestern University)

Faculty Positions – Personalized Medicine (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

Associate/Full Professor – Rudi Schmid Endowed Chair in Neuroscience (University of California, San Francisco)

Tenure Track Positions – Neuroscience (Albert Einstein College of Medicine / Gottesman Stem Cell Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Research (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tissue Engineering & Spinal Cord Injury (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Candidate – Dynamic Organization of Synapses (INSERM)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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