Volume 8.42 | Oct 29

Neural Cell News 8.42 October 29, 2014
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Neurons Limit Angiogenesis by Titrating VEGF in Retina
Scientists identified a noncanonical neurovascular interaction in eye development and disease. VEGFR2, a critical endothelial receptor for VEGF, was more abundantly expressed in retinal neurons than in endothelial cells, including endothelial tip cells. Genetic deletion of VEGFR2 in neurons caused misdirected angiogenesis toward neurons, resulting in abnormally increased vascular density around neurons. [Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract
Efficiently Expand hPSC-Derived NPCs Without Loss of Multipotency: STEMdiff™ Neural Progenitor Medium
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Morphological and Molecular Nature of Synaptic Vesicle Priming at Presynaptic Active Zones
Scientists employed hippocampal organotypic slice cultures from mice lacking key presynaptic proteins, cryofixation, and three-dimensional electron tomography to study the mechanism of synaptic vesicle docking in the same experimental setting, with high precision, and in a near-native state. [Neuron]
Abstract | Press Release

Stochastic Nanoroughness Modulates Neuron-Astrocyte Interactions and Function via Mechanosensing Cation Channels
The authors theorize a role for topography in neuronal development and demonstrate that survival and function of hippocampal neurons and differentiation of telencephalic neural stem cells is modulated by nanoroughness. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Stretch-Activated Ion Channel Piezo1 Directs Lineage Choice in Human Neural Stem Cells
Investigators found that the mechanically gated ion channel Piezo1 is expressed by brain-derived human neural stem/progenitor cells and is responsible for a mechanically induced ionic current. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

The Nuclear Receptor NR2E1/TLX Controls Senescence
The nuclear receptor NR2E1 controls the self-renewal of neural stem cells (NSCs) and has been implied as an oncogene which initiates brain tumors including glioblastomas. Scientists confirmed that NR2E1 regulates CBX7 and restrains senescence in NSCs. [Oncogene] Abstract

Sorting Nexin 27 Regulates Aβ Production through Modulating γ-Secretase Activity
Scientists report a function of SNX27 in regulating β-amyloid (Aβ) generation by modulating γ-secretase activity. Genetic deletion of Snx27 promoted Aβ production and neuronal loss, whereas overexpression of SNX27 using an adeno-associated viral vector reduced hippocampal Aβ levels in a transgenic Alzheimer’s disease mouse model. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Expression Quantitative Trait Loci and Receptor Pharmacology Implicate Arg1 and the GABA-A Receptor as Therapeutic Targets in Neuroblastoma
Researchers combined genetics with gene-expression analysis in the peripheral sympathetic nervous system to implicate arginase 1 and GABA signaling in tumor formation in vivo. In human neuroblastoma cells, either blockade of ARG1 or benzodiazepine-mediated activation of GABA-A receptors induced apoptosis and inhibited mitogenic signaling through AKT and MAPK. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Engineering Toxin-Resistant Therapeutic Stem Cells to Treat Brain Tumors
Scientists created toxin-resistant stem cells by modifying endogenous elongation factor-2, and engineered them to secrete pseudomonas exotoxin-cytotoxins targeting IL13Rα2 and EGFR expressed by many glioblastomas. [Stem Cells] Abstract | Press Release

Huntingtin Promotes mTORC1 Signaling in the Pathogenesis of Huntington’s Disease
Investigators found that huntingtin (Htt) promotes signaling by mTORC1 (mechanistic target of rapamycin [mTOR] complex 1) and that this signaling is potentiated by poly-Q-expanded Htt. Knocking out Htt in mouse embryonic stem cells or human embryonic kidney cells attenuated amino acid-induced mTORC1 activity, whereas overexpressing wild-type or poly-Q-expanded Htt in striatal neuronal cells increased basal mTOR activity. [Sci Signal] Abstract | Press Release

A Smoothened Receptor Agonist Is Neuroprotective and Promotes Regeneration after Ischemic Brain Injury
Investigators report the neuroprotective properties of a small-molecule agonist of the sonic hedgehog co-receptor Smoothened, purmorphamine (PUR), in the middle cerebral artery occlusion model of ischemic stroke. PUR increased the number of newly generated neurons in the peri-infarct and infarct area and promoted neovascularization in the ischemic zone. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article | Press Release

Lab-on-a-Brain: Implantable Micro-Optical Fluidic Devices for Neural Cell Analysis In Vivo
Scientists report a novel experimental platform, where the intact brain of a living mouse can be studied with the aid of a surgically implanted micro-optical fluidic device; acting as an interface between neurons and the outer world. [Sci Rep] Full Article | Press Release

miR-21 Improves the Neurological Outcome after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats
Researchers found that upregulation of microRNA (miR)-21 level in brain conferred a better neurological outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI) by improving long-term neurological function, alleviating brain edema and decreasing lesion volume. They evaluated the impact of miR-21 on apoptosis and angiogenesis in brain after TBI. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
 
REVIEWS
Medulloblastoma – Translating Discoveries from the Bench to the Bedside
The authors discuss the current knowledge of medulloblastoma. They present the genetic and histological features, patient demographics, prognosis, and therapeutic options for each the four molecular tumor subtypes that comprise this disease entity. [Nat Rev Clin Oncol] Abstract

Decoding Neural Transcriptomes and Epigenomes via High-Throughput Sequencing
The authors offer some general and practical information to demystify next-generation sequencing technology and highlight its potential to the neuroscience field. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

Global Controls in Stem Cells
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Focused Ultrasound Symposium Showcases Latest in Clinical and Research Advances in Non-Invasive Therapy for Brain Disorders, Cancer and Other Diseases
The 4th International Symposium on Focused Ultrasound featured clinical and research advances on the use of this non-invasive therapeutic technology to treat conditions as diverse as Parkinson’s disease and essential tremor, obsessive compulsive disorder, several cancers, hypertension and uterine fibroids. [Press release from the Focused Ultrasound Foundation discussing research presented at the 4th International Symposium on Focused Ultrasound, Charlottesville] Press Release

Neuralstem Alzheimer’s Disease Animal Data Presented at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons Annual Meeting
Neuralstem, Inc. announced that the first data in a study transplanting its neural stem cells in an animal model of Alzheimer’s disease was presented. [Press release from Neuralstem, Inc. discussing research presented at the Congress of Neurological Surgeons (CNS) Annual Meeting, Boston] Press Release

Studies Confirm Potential of Trilexium for Childhood Cancers
Novogen released the results of two recently-completed studies of one of its lead candidate compounds, TRX-E-009-1, confirming its ability to kill pediatric brain cancer cells and clearing the way for the compound to come into the clinic as a potential treatment of childhood cancers. [Novogen Limited] Press Release

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Mayo Clinic Receives $6 Million for ALS, FTD Research
The National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke and the U.S. Department of Defense have awarded researchers at Mayo Clinic Jacksonville approximately $6 million in two grants to further their studies aimed at improving the diagnosis and treatment of patients suffering from either amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) or Lou Gehrig’s disease and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [Mayo Clinic] Press Release

Temple and CHOP to Explore Eradicating HIV from Hiding Places in the Brain
Temple University and Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) have received a joint $4.3 million, four-year grant from the National Institute of Mental Health to investigate new methods to eradicate HIV that lurks in brain cells despite conventional antiviral treatments. [Temple University] Press Release

BME Researchers Awarded $250,000 to Develop an Effective Treatment for Childhood Brain Tumors
Prayers from Maria Children’s Glioma Cancer Foundation announced that it will award its $250,000 Melana Matson Memorial Grant to Case Western Reserve University Case Comprehensive Cancer Center researchers who are studying the use of nanotechnology to more effectively treat pediatric glioma brain tumors.
[Case Western Reserve University]
Press Release

New Brain Tumor Research Center of Excellence Is Unveiled at QMUL
Patients, carers, scientists, clinicians and charities from across the UK gathered for the launch of a ground-breaking new partnership between the charity Brain Tumor Research and Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) in collaboration with the UCL Institute of Neurology. [Queen Mary University of London ] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Cell Symposia: Hallmarks of Cancer – Asia
November 9-11, 2014
Beijing, China

NEW Advances in Cancer Immunotherapy™
December 5, 2014
Tampa, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Mitochondrial Science in Parkinson’s Disease (Haukeland University Hospital and University of Bergen)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Northwestern University)

Lecturer – Infantile Neurology (Poznan University of Medical Sciences)

Faculty Positions – Personalized Medicine (University of Nevada, Las Vegas)

Associate/Full Professor – Rudi Schmid Endowed Chair in Neuroscience (University of California, San Francisco)

Tenure Track Positions – Neuroscience (Albert Einstein College of Medicine / Gottesman Stem Cell Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Research (University of Wisconsin-Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Tissue Engineering & Spinal Cord Injury (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Candidate – Dynamic Organization of Synapses (INSERM)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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