Volume 8.33 | Aug 27

Neural Cell News 8.33 August 27, 2014
Neural Cell News
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The G Protein α Subunit Gαs Is a Tumor Suppressor in Sonic Hedgehog-Driven Medulloblastoma
s is highly enriched at the primary cilium of granule neuron precursors and suppresses Sonic hedgehog signaling by regulating both the cAMP-dependent pathway and ciliary trafficking of Hedgehog pathway components. Elevation in levels of a Gαs effector, cAMP, effectively inhibits tumor cell proliferation and progression in Gnas-ablated mice. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Imaging Activity in Neurons and Glia with a Polr2a-Based and Cre-Dependent
GCaMP5G-IRES-tdTomato Reporter Mouse

Researchers recorded spontaneous cortical calcium waves in intact awake newborns and evaluated concentration-dependent responses to odorants in the adult olfactory bulb. Moreover, the PC::G5-tdT mouse line effectively reports intracellular calcium dynamics in somas and fine processes of astrocytes and microglial cells. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

Mutual Antagonism between Sox10 and NFIA Regulates Diversification of Glial Lineages and Glioma Subtypes
Scientists found that NFIA inhibited Sox10 induction of oligodendrocyte differentiation through direct association and antagonism of its function. Conversely, they found that Sox10 antagonized NFIA function and suppressed astrocyte differentiation in mouse and chick systems. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

The ​MK2/3 Cascade Regulates AMPAR Trafficking and Cognitive Flexibility
Researchers provide evidence that MAPK-activated protein kinases 2 and 3 (​MK2/3) regulate neuronal spine morphology, synaptic transmission and plasticity. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Trans-Regulation of Oligodendrocyte Myelination by Neurons through Small GTPase ​Arf6-Regulated Secretion of ​Fibroblast Growth Factor-2
Researchers generated conditional knockout mice lacking ​​ADP-ribosylation factor 6 (Arf6) in neurons, oligodendrocytes, or both cell lineages, and unexpectedly find that ​Arf6 expression in neurons, but not in oligodendrocytes, is crucial for oligodendrocyte myelination in the hippocampal fimbria and the corpus callosum during development, and that this is through the regulation of secretion of ​fibroblast growth factor-2, a guidance factor for migration of oligodendrocyte precursor cells. [Nat Commun] Abstract

HDAC3 Controls Gap 2/Mitosis Progression in Adult Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells by Regulating CDK1 Levels
Using conditional KO mice and in vitro cell culture, researchers show that histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) is required for the proliferation of adult neural stem/progenitor cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Epigenetic Suppression of EGFR Signaling in G-CIMP+ Glioblastomas
The CpG island methylator phenotype (G-CIMP)+ Ink4a-Arf-/- EGFRvIII glioblastoma line was more resistant to the EGFR inhibitor, Gefitinib, relative to its isogenic G-CIMP counterpart. [Oncotarget]
Abstract | Download Full Article | Press Release

Effects of Acute versus Post-Acute Systemic Delivery of Neural Progenitor Cells on Neurological Recovery and Brain Remodeling after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
Male C57BL6 mice were exposed to cerebral ischemia, and neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were intravenously grafted on day 0, on day 1 or on day 28. Density of grafted NPCs within the ischemic hemisphere was increased when cells were transplanted on day 28 as compared with transplantation on days 0 or 1. [Cell Death Dis]
Full Article

Sialidase NEU4 Is Involved in Glioblastoma Stem Cell Survival
Scientists demonstrated that glioblastoma stem cells isolated from glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) cell lines and patients’ specimens as neurospheres are specifically marked by the upregulation of NEU4; in contrast, the expression of NEU4 is very low in non-neurosphere-differentiated GBM cells. [Cell Death Dis]
Full Article | Press Release

The EIIIA Domain from Astrocyte-Derived Fibronectin Mediates Proliferation of Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cells following CNS Demyelination
Both the EIIIA and EIIIB domains of astrocyte-derived fibronectin (aFn) were expressed following demyelination, and in vitro assays demonstrated that the EIIIA domain of aFn mediates proliferation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, but not migration. [Glia] Abstract

Activated CD8+ T Lymphocytes Inhibit Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Proliferation: Role of Interferon-Gamma
Activated CD8 lymphocytes were found to suppress neural stem/progenitor cells (NSCs) proliferation profoundly. Luciferase positive NSCs co-cultured with activated, MHC-matched, CD8+ lymphocytes showed two- to five-fold lower luminescence than co-cultures with un-stimulated lymphocytes. [PLoS One] Full Article

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
Amyloid Beta Receptors Responsible for Neurotoxicity and Cellular Defects in Alzheimer’s Disease
Understanding the neurotoxic signaling initiated by amyloid-β (Aβ)-receptor binding and cellular defects provide insight into new therapeutic windows for Alzheimer’s disease. The authors summarize the findings on Aβ-binding receptors and the neurotoxicity of oligomeric Aβ. [Cell Mol Life Sci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.

BioProcess International Conference & Exhibition - Boston MA
Salk Neuroscientist Charles Stevens Receives NSF Grant under BRAIN Initiative
Charles Stevens, a professor in the Salk Institute’s Molecular Neurobiology Laboratory, will receive one of 36 Early Concept Grants for Exploratory Research from the National Science Foundation (NSF) to further research on how complex behaviors emerge from the activity of the brain. [Salk Institute for Biological Studies]
Press Release

Penn Medicine Opens Center for Advanced Retinal and Ocular Therapeutics (CAROT)
The Perelman School of Medicine at the University of Pennsylvania has launched the Penn Center for Advanced Retinal and Ocular Therapeutics to build on its previous success developing novel therapies for the personalized diagnosis and treatment of retinal and ocular disorders. [Penn Medicine] Press Release

Ice Bucket Donations Continue to Rise: $94.3 Million since July 29
As of Wednesday, August 27, The ALS Association has received $94.3 million in donations compared to $2.7 million during the same time period last year (July 29 to August 27). These donations have come from existing donors and 2.1 million new donors. [The ALS Association] Press Release

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NEW 9th International Conference of Anticancer Research
October 6-10, 2014
Sithonia, Greece

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology (The University of Texas Medical School At Houston)

NEW Postdoctoral Positions – The Development of Human Cortical Neurons and Synapses (Free University of Brussels)

PhD Position – EphB/EphrinB in Stroke (Heidelberg University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship (Medical University of South Carolina)

Research Associate – Neuroscience (University of Cambridge)

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Extracellular Matrix (German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases)

Technical Account Manager (GlobalStem)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity and Neurogenesis (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Biology (Yale University)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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