Volume 8.31 | Aug 13

Neural Cell News 8.31 August 13, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Challenging the Notion of Personalized Medicine
Scientists suggest that several subtypes of a brain cancer called glioblastoma that previously were thought to sprout independently from one another are actually branches of the same developmental tree. Their data show that the same genomic changes consistently initiate the transition of healthy brain cells toward various types of glioblastoma. [Press release from Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center discussing online prepublication in Cancer Cell] Press Release | Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Long-Distance Axonal Growth from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells after Spinal Cord Injury
Human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from a healthy 86-year-old male were differentiated into neural stem cells and grafted into adult immunodeficient rats after spinal cord injury. Three months after C5 lateral hemisections, iPSCs survived and differentiated into neurons and glia and extended tens of thousands of axons from the lesion site over virtually the entire length of the rat CNS. [Neuron]
Abstract | Video Abstract | Press Release

Polyglutamine-Expanded Androgen Receptor Interferes with TFEB to Elicit Autophagy Defects in SBMA
Scientists reprogrammed patient fibroblasts to induced pluripotent stem cells and then to neuronal precursor cells (NPCs). They compared multiple spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) NPC lines and documented the metabolic and autophagic flux defects that could be rescued by transcription factor EB (TFEB). [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Genetic Validation of a Therapeutic Target in a Mouse Model of ALS
Previously, scientists found that glia from mice carrying the SOD1G93A mutation, a model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), were toxic to stem cell-derived human motor neurons. Using pharmacological and genetic approaches, they now demonstrate that the prostanoid receptor DP1 mediates this glial toxicity. [Sci Transl Med] Abstract | Press Release

Bioengineered Functional Brain-Like Cortical Tissue
Scientists report the construction of complex functional 3D brain-like cortical tissue, maintained for months in vitro, formed from primary cortical neurons in modular 3D compartmentalized architectures with electrophysiological function. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Primary Cilia Are Required in a Unique Subpopulation of Neural Progenitors
Their unique location facing the ventricular lumen suggests that primary cilia in neural stem cells (NSCs) could play an important role in reception of signals within the cerebrospinal fluid. To directly study the role of adult (B1) NSCs’ primary cilia without the confounding effects of hydrocephalus, researchers stereotaxically targeted elimination of Kif3a from a subpopulation of radial glia, which resulted in ablation of primary cilia in a subset of B1 cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

TGFβ Lengthens the G1 Phase of Stem Cells in Aged Mouse Brain
By using an accurate FACS technique, scientists show that a pool of neural stem cells is maintained in the subventricular zone of middle-aged mice while they have a reduced proliferative potential eventually leading to the subsequent decrease of their progeny. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Notch Intracellular Domain Deficiency in Nuclear Localization Activity Retains the Ability to Enhance Neural Stem Cell Character and Block Neurogenesis in Mammalian Brain Development
Investigators assessed the level of contribution of Notch domains to the regulation of mammalian neural stem cells in vivo as well as in vitro. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Human Fetal Brain-Derived Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells Grafted into the Adult Epileptic Brain Restrain Seizures in Rat Models of Temporal Lobe Epilepsy
To evaluate the therapeutic potential of human neural stem/progenitor cells (huNSPCs) for treating temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), researchers transplanted huNSPCs, derived from an aborted fetal telencephalon at 13 weeks of gestation and expanded in culture as neurospheres over a long time period, into the epileptic hippocampus of fully kindled and pilocarpine-treated adult rats exhibiting TLE. [PLoS One] Full Article

Sox2 Acts as a Transcriptional Repressor in Neural Stem Cells
Researchers show that in neural stem cells Sox2 represses as many genes as it activates. They found that Sox2 interacts directly with members of the groucho family of corepressors and that repression of several target genes required this interaction. Strikingly, where many of the genes activated by Sox2 encode transcriptional regulators, no such genes were repressed. [BMC Neurosci] Abstract | Full Article

Global Transcriptome Profiling of Genes that Are Differentially Regulated during Differentiation of Mouse Embryonic Neural Stem Cells into Astrocytes
Scientists differentiated neural stem cells (NSCs) from the forebrain of embryonic day 14.5 mouse embryos into astrocytes over one and seven days. They identified transcriptomes of NSCs and astrocytes using RNA sequencing and analyzed enriched gene networks, signal pathways, and ontology. [J Mol Neurosci] Abstract

Efficiently Expand hPSC-Derived NPCs Without Loss of Multipotency: STEMdiff™ Neural Progenitor Medium
Regulation of Neuronal Polarity
The distinctive polarized morphology of neuronal cells is essential for the proper wiring of the nervous system. The author reviews some key signaling pathways regulating neuronal polarization and provides some insights on the complexity of this process gained from in vivo studies. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neural cell research field.
International Stem Cell Corporation Launches Stroke Program with Tulane University
International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCO) announced that it has launched a new stroke program. Together with Tulane University, ISCO will study the impact of human parthenogenetic neural stem cells transplantation in a pre-clinical rodent model of ischemic stroke as a first step toward the clinical development of a potential stroke treatment. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

UAB Researcher Obtains Grant to Study Protein Linked to Brain Cancer
A University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB) researcher has received a significant Research Scholar Grant from the American Cancer Society to further understanding of glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and deadly cancer originating in the brain. [University of Alabama at Birmingham] Press Release

Clinical Trial Evaluates Safety of Stem Cell Transplantation in Spine
Researchers at the University of California, San Diego School of Medicine have launched a clinical trial to investigate the safety of neural stem cell transplantation in patients with chronic spinal cord injuries. [UC San Diego] Press Release

From our sponsor: Pluripotent cell isolation for regenerative medicine. Request a free wallchart from Nature.
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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

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Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Biology and Treatment of Metastatic Cancers
September 23-26, 2014
El Jadida, Morocco

NEW 14th International Conference Progress in Vaccination against Cancer (PIVAC-14)
September 24-26, 2014
Rome, Italy

NEW 14th Annual Meeting of the International Society for Cell & Gene Therapy of Cancer
September 25-27, 2014
Amsterdam, The Netherlands

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship (Medical University of South Carolina)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Norlux Neuro-Oncology Laboratory (CRP-Santé Luxembourg)

Research Associate – Neuroscience (University of Cambridge)

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Extracellular Matrix (German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases)

Postdoctoral Position – Motor Neuron Biology (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center)

Technical Account Manager (GlobalStem)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity and Neurogenesis (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Biology (Yale University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Experimental Neuroscience, Stem Cell Biology, and Neurotransplantation (Johns Hopkins University)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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