Volume 8.29 | Jul 30

Neural Cell News 8.29 July 30, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Researchers Find New Mechanism for Neurodegeneration
A research team has pinpointed a surprising mechanism behind neurodegeneration in mice, one that involves a defect in a key component of the cellular machinery that makes proteins, known as transfer RNA or tRNA. The researchers report that a mutation in a gene that produces tRNAs operating only in the central nervous system results in a “stalling” or pausing of the protein production process in the neuronal ribosomes. [Press release from The Jackson Laboratory discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Coexpressed Auxiliary Subunits Exhibit Distinct Modulatory Profiles on AMPA Receptor Function
Gating properties and surface trafficking of AMPA receptors are modulated by auxiliary subunits. The authors studied the function of coexpressed auxiliary subunits belonging to two different classes. They focused on TARP γ-8 and CKAMP44 in dentate gyrus granule cells, since both subunits are highly expressed in this cell type. [Neuron] Abstract | Video Abstract | Press Release

Endostatin Is a Trans-Synaptic Signal for Homeostatic Synaptic Plasticity
In a forward genetic screen for homeostatic plasticity genes, the authors identified multiplexin. Multiplexin is the Drosophila homolog of collagen XV/XVIII, a matrix protein that can be proteolytically cleaved to release endostatin, an antiangiogenesis signaling factor. They demonstrate that multiplexin is required for normal calcium channel abundance, presynaptic calcium influx, and neurotransmitter release. [Neuron]
Abstract | Press Release

Gap Junction Proteins in the Blood-Brain Barrier Control Nutrient-Dependent Reactivation of Drosophila Neural Stem Cells
Scientists show that gap junctions in the blood-brain barrier glia mediate the influence of metabolic changes on stem cell behavior, enabling glia to respond to nutritional signals and reactivate quiescent stem cells. [Dev Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Spatial Regionalization and Heterochrony in the Formation of Adult Pallial Neural Stem Cells
Researchers report that the germinal zone of the adult pallium originates from two distinct subtypes of embryonic progenitors and integrates two modes of adult neural stem cell formation. [Dev Cell]
Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Astrocytes Contribute to Gamma Oscillations and Recognition Memory
The authors show that astrocytes contribute to the fast dynamics of neural circuits that underlie normal cognitive behaviors. In particular, they found that the selective expression of tetanus neurotoxin in astrocytes significantly reduced the duration of carbachol-induced gamma oscillations in hippocampal slices. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Major Transcriptome Re-Organization and Abrupt Changes in Signaling, Cell Cycle and Chromatin Regulation at Neural Differentiation In Vivo
Investigators exploited the spatial separation of temporal events of neural differentiation in the elongating chick body axis to provide the first analysis of transcriptome change in progressively more differentiated neural cell populations in vivo. [Development] Abstract | Full Article

The Neuroprotective Effect of Klotho Is Mediated via Regulation of Members of the Redox System
Investigators examined the mechanism by which the anti-aging protein Klotho exerts neuroprotective effects against neuronal damage associated with neurodegeneration and oxidative stress. [J Biol Chem]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Rfx Transcription Factors Control Musashi1 Transcription in Mouse Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells
Researchers generated reporter transgenic mice for the 6th intronic Musashi1 (Msi1) enhancer, which show the reporter expression corresponding with endogenous Msi1-positive cells in developing and adult neural stem/progenitor cells. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Isoflurane Reversibly Destabilizes Hippocampal Dendritic Spines by an Actin-Dependent Mechanism
Researchers investigated effects of the widely used volatile anesthetic isoflurane on the structural stability of hippocampal dendritic spines, a postsynaptic structure critical to excitatory synaptic transmission in learning and memory. [PLoS One] Full Article | Press Release

Peripheral Administration of the Selective Inhibitor of Soluble Tumor Necrosis Factor (TNF) XPro1595 Attenuates Nigral Cell Loss and Glial Activation in 6-OHDA Hemiparkinsonian Rats
Investigators aimed to determine the extent to which peripherally administered dominant negative TNF inhibitor XPro1595 could cross the blood-brain-barrier in therapeutically relevant concentrations, attenuate neuroinflammation (microglia and astrocyte), and mitigate loss of SNpc dopamine neurons in rats receiving a unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine striatal lesion. [J Parkinsons Dis] Abstract | Press Release

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Microglia as a Critical Player in Both Developmental and Late-Life CNS Pathologies
The authors review the latest findings and concepts emerging from the rapidly growing body of literature exemplified for Rett syndrome and late-onset, sporadic Alzheimer’s disease. [Acta Neuropathol] Abstract

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Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Asia Congress 2014
Albert Einstein College of Medicine Receives Grant from The Michael J. Fox Foundation to Fund Drug Discovery Project Targeting Parkinson’s
Researchers at Albert Einstein College of Medicine of Yeshiva University have received a grant from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research to translate a basic science finding into a treatment for Parkinson’s disease. [Albert Einstein College of Medicine] Press Release

FDA Performs Inspection of Impax’s Taiwan Facility
Impax Laboratories, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) performed a general GMP inspection and a Pre-Approval Inspection for RYTARY™ at the company’s Taiwan manufacturing facility. At the conclusion of the inspection, the FDA issued a Form 483 with ten inspectional observations. [Impax Laboratories, Inc.] Press Release

Neurotrope Initiates Phase IIa Study of Bryostatin for the Treatment of Alzheimer’s Disease – Doses First Patients
Neurotrope, Inc. announced that it has initiated a Phase IIa clinical trial to evaluate bryostatin for the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s disease. [Neurotrope, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neural Extracellular Matrix (German Center for Neurodegenerative Diseases)

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