Volume 8.27 | Jul 16

Neural Cell News 8.27 July 16, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Mouse Study Nails Neurons that Trigger Repetitive Behavior
Researchers found that deleting neuroligin-3 from the nucleus accumbens, an area of the brain thought to be important for goal-directed behavior, induces repetitive behavior. A careful analysis of the nucleus accumbens implicated a subset of neurons that express a receptor for the chemical messenger dopamine. These neurons play a key role in organizing sequences of movement. [Press release from Simons Foundation Autism Research Initiative discussing online prepublication in Cell] Press Release | Abstract | Graphical Abstract
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Cortical γ-Aminobutyric Acidergic Excitation Contributes to Epileptic Activities around Human Glioma
Researchers studied the occurrence, networks, cells, and signaling basis of epileptic activities in neocortical slices from the peritumoral surgical margin resected around human brain gliomas. [Sci Transl Med]
Abstract | Press Release

The Transcription Factor Fezf2 Directs the Differentiation of Neural Stem Cells in the Subventricular Zone toward a Cortical Phenotype
By overexpressing the transcription factor Fezf2, a powerful master gene specifying the phenotype of glutamatergic subcerebral projecting neurons, researchers investigated whether the fate of postnatally generated subventricular zone neurons can be altered. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Caspase-8 Promotes NLRP1/NLRP3 Inflammasome Activation and IL-1β Production in Acute Glaucoma
Investigators used an acute intraocular pressure elevation/glaucoma model to investigate the underlying mechanism of retinal ganglion cell (RCG) death. They show that inhibition of caspase-8 activation significantly attenuates RGC death by down-regulating the activation of Nod-like receptor family, pyrin domain containing 1 (NLRP1) and NLRP3, thus demonstrating the pivotal role of caspase-8 in the Toll-like receptor 4-mediated activation of inflammasomes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

The E3 Ligase PARC Mediates the Degradation of Cytosolic Cytochrome C to Promote Survival in Neurons and Cancer Cells
The ability to withstand mitochondrial damage is especially critical for the survival of postmitotic cells, such as neurons. The abundance of Parkin-like cytoplasmic protein (PARC) positively correlated with differentiation in mouse neurons, and overexpression of PARC reduced the abundance of mitochondrially-released cytosolic cytochrome c in various cancer cell lines and in mouse embryonic fibroblasts. [Sci Signal]
Abstract | Press Release

ESCRT Mediated Uptake and Degradation of Brain Targeted α-Synuclein-Single Chain Antibody Attenuates Neuronal Degeneration In Vivo
Scientists investigated a single chain antibody (scFV) directed against oligomeric α-syn fused to the LDL receptor-binding domain from apoB. The modified scFV showed enhanced brain penetration and was imported into neuronal cells through the ESCRT pathway leading to lysosomal degradation of α-syn aggregates. [Mol Ther] Abstract | Full Article

Inhibitory Interneuron Progenitor Transplantation Restores Normal Learning and Memory in ApoE4 Knock-In Mice without or with Aβ Accumulation
To determine whether replacing the lost or impaired interneurons rescues neuronal signaling and behavioral deficits, investigators transplanted embryonic interneuron progenitors into the hippocampal hilus of aged apolipoprotein (apo) E4 knock-in mice without or with amyloid-β (Aβ) accumulation. [J Neurosci]
Abstract | Press Release

Transient Muscarinic and Glutamatergic Stimulation of Neural Stem Cells Triggers Acute and Persistent Changes in Differentiation
Using both mouse and human iPSC-derived neural progenitor/stem cells (NPSCs), researchers found that a combined transient muscarinic and mGluR1 stimulation inhibited overall neurogenesis but enhanced NPSC differentiation into immature GABAergic cells. [Neurobiol Dis] Abstract

Astrocyte Transforming Growth Factor Beta 1 Promotes Inhibitory Synapse Formation via CaM Kinase II Signaling
Researchers identified transforming growth factor beta 1, derived from human and murine astrocytes, as regulator of inhibitory synapse in vitro and in vivo. [Glia] Abstract | Press Release

Molecular and Functional Analyses of Motor Neurons Generated from Human Cord Blood Derived Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Investigators present the differentiation of human cord blood derived induced pluripotent stem cells into motor neurons, the cell type primarily affected in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. [Stem Cells Dev] Abstract

Selection Based on FOXA2 Expression Is Not Sufficient to Enrich for Dopamine Neurons from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells
Investigators developed a selection approach using lentivirus vectors to express green fluorescent protein under the promoter region of FOXA2, a transcription factor that is expressed in the floor plate domain that gives rise to dopamine neurons during embryogenesis. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

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The Multifunctional Staufen Proteins: Conserved Roles from Neurogenesis to Synaptic Plasticity
The authors discuss recent findings on the conserved role played by Staufen during both the early differentiation of neurons and in the synaptic plasticity of mature neurons. [Trends Neurosci] Full Article

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Smell and Eye Tests Show Potential to Detect Alzheimer’s Early
A decreased ability to identify odors might indicate the development of cognitive impairment and Alzheimer’s disease, while examinations of the eye could indicate the build-up of beta-amyloid, a protein associated with Alzheimer’s, in the brain, according to the results of four research trials. [Press release from the Alzheimer’s Association discussing research presented at the Alzheimer’s Association International Conference® (AAIC®) 2014, Copenhagen] Press Release

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Banner Alzheimer’s Institute Announces Partnership with Novartis in New Study of Alzheimer’s Prevention Treatments
Researchers from the Banner Alzheimer’s Institute announced a partnership with Novartis in a pioneering medical trial to determine whether two investigational anti-amyloid drugs – an active immunotherapy and an oral medication – can prevent or delay the emergence of symptoms of Alzheimer’s in people at particularly high risk for developing the disease at older ages. [Banner Alzheimer’s Institute] Press Release

CEL-SCI Receives Regulatory Clearance to Expand CEL-SCI’S Phase III Head and Neck Cancer Trial into Austria
CEL-SCI Corporation announced that it has received regulatory clearance from the Austrian Federal Office for Safety in Health Care to begin patient enrollment in the company’s Phase III head and neck cancer clinical trial of its investigational cancer immunotherapy treatment Multikine. [CEL-SCI Corporation] Press Release

Outstanding Neuroscience Scholars Win 2014 Bishop Fund Awards
In recognition of their research accomplishments, scholars in the University at Buffalo’s Neuroscience Program have received awards from the Beverly Petterson Bishop and Charles W. Bishop Neuroscience Fund. [University of Buffalo] Press Release
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NEW Targeting the PI3K-mTOR Network in Cancer
September 14-17, 2014
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NEW Product Marketing Manager (Cesca Therapeutics)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Immunity and Neurogenesis (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Cell Biology (Yale University)

Research Associate – Generation of Laminated Neural Retinae from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (Institute of Genetic Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Experimental Neuroscience, Stem Cell Biology, and Neurotransplantation (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Optics and Bioengineering for Engineering and/or Neuroscientific Applications (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Position – Cellular Neuroscience (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – CNRS)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular/Cellular Neuroscience (CIMA/University of Navarra)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurotoxicity and Epigenetics (Thomas Jefferson University)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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