Volume 8.24 | Jun 25

Neural Cell News 8.24 June 25, 2014
Neural Cell News
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The Brain’s Balancing Act
Scientists have shown that there is a constant ratio between the total amount of pro-firing stimulation that a neuron receives from the hundreds or thousands of excitatory neurons that feed into it, and the total amount of red-light stop signaling that it receives from the equally numerous inhibitory neurons. [Press release from UC San Diego Health System discussing online prepublication in Nature] Press Release | Abstract
Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Parasympathetic Ganglia Derive from Schwann Cell Precursors
Researchers studied how parasympathetic ganglia form close to visceral organs and what their precursors are. They found that many cranial nerve-associated crest cells coexpress the pan-autonomic determinant paired-like homeodomain 2b (Phox2b) together with markers of Schwann cell precursors. Some gave rise to Schwann cells after down-regulation of Phox2b. [Science] Abstract

β-Amyloid Inhibits E-S Potentiation through Suppression of Cannabinoid Receptor 1-Dependent Synaptic Disinhibition
Researchers showed evidence that β-amyloid peptide more potently blocks the potentiation of excitatory postsynaptic potential-spike coupling (E-S potentiation). This intact inhibition opposed the normal depolarization of hippocampal pyramidal neurons that occured during tetanus, thus opposing the induction of synaptic plasticity. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

Snf2h-Mediated Chromatin Organization and Histone H1 Dynamics Govern Cerebellar Morphogenesis and Neural Maturation
Scientists showed that mice conditionally inactivated for Snf2h in neural progenitors have reduced levels of histone H1 and H2A variants that compromise chromatin fluidity and transcriptional programs within the developing cerebellum. Disorganized chromatin limits Purkinje and granule neuron progenitor expansion, resulting in abnormal post-natal foliation, while deregulated transcriptional programs contribute to altered neural maturation, motor dysfunction and death. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Disruption of Astrocyte-Vascular Coupling and the Blood-Brain Barrier by Invading Glioma Cells
Researchers used a clinically relevant mouse model of glioma and find that glioma cells, as they populate the perivascular space of preexisting vessels, displace astrocytic endfeet from endothelial or vascular smooth muscle cells. Astrocyte-mediated gliovascular coupling is lost, and glioma cells seize control over the regulation of vascular tone through Ca2+-dependent release of K+. [Nat Commun] Full Article | Press Release

Transcellular Degradation of Axonal Mitochondria
Scientists report that retinal ganglion cell axons of WT mice shed mitochondria at the optic nerve head, and that these mitochondria are internalized and degraded by adjacent astrocytes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA]
Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Human Brat Ortholog TRIM3 Is a Tumor Suppressor that Regulates Asymmetric Cell Division in Glioblastoma
Scientists identified TRIM3 as a human ortholog of Drosophila brat and demonstrate its regulation of asymmetric cell division and stem cell properties of glioblastoma (GBM), a highly malignant human brain tumor. TRIM3 expression attenuates stem-like qualities of primary GBM cultures, including neurosphere formation and the expression of stem cell markers CD133, Nestin and Nanog. [Cancer Res] Abstract

Collagen Nanofibers Facilitated Pre-Synaptic Maturation in Differentiated Neurons from Spinal Cord-Derived Neural Stem Cells through MAPK/ERK1/2-Synapsin I Signaling Pathway
The frequency of miniature excitatory post-synaptic currents in differentiated neurons cultured on both randomly and aligned collagen nanofibrous scaffolds was higher than those on collagen-coated control, and could be inhibited by an ERK inhibitor, indicating that collagen nanofibers affected the maturation of the synapses from pre-synaptic sites via MAPK/ERK1/2 pathway. [Biomacromolecules] Abstract

mRNA-Seq and MicroRNA-Seq Whole-Transcriptome Analyses of Rhesus Monkey Embryonic Stem Cell Neural Differentiation Revealed the Potential Regulators of Rosette Neural Stem Cells
Investigators derived rosette neural stem cells (R-NSCs) from rhesus monkey embryonic stem cells (ESCs) and systematically investigated the unique expressions of mRNAs, microRNAs (miRNA), and signaling pathways by genome-wide comparison of the mRNA and miRNA profilings of ESCs, R-NSCs at early and late passages, and neural progenitor cells. [DNA Res] Abstract | Full Article

STAT3 Modulation to Enhance Motor Neuron Differentiation in Human Neural Stem Cells
Researchers determined the effect of signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) inhibition on human neural stem cells (hNSCs). In vitro hNSCs primed with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) exhibited a lower level of phosphorylated STAT3 than cells primed by epidermal growth factor, which correlated with a higher number of motor neurons differentiated from FGF2-primed hNSCs. [PLoS One] Full Article

Monitoring the Differentiation and Migration Patterns of Neural Cells Derived from Human Embryonic Stem Cells Using a Microfluidic Culture System
Researchers utilized microfluidics technology to monitor the differentiation and migration of neural cells derived from human embryonic stem cells. Tuj1-positive neural cells, but not nestinpositive neural precursor cells, were able to enter the microfluidics grooves, suggesting that neural cell-migratory capacity was dependent upon neuronal differentiation stage. [Mol Cells] Abstract | Full Article

Neurovascular Recovery via Cotransplanted Neural and Vascular Progenitors Leads to Improved Functional Restoration after Ischemic Stroke in Rats
Scientists demonstrate that enhanced neurovascular recovery via cotransplantation of neural progenitor cells and embryonic stem cell-derived vascular progenitor cells in a rat stroke model is correlated with improved functional recovery after stroke. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Press Release

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
A Neurocentric Perspective on Glioma Invasion
Gliomas use the same tortuous extracellular routes of migration that are travelled by immature neurons and stem cells, frequently using blood vessels as guides. The unique biology of glioma invasion provides hitherto unexplored brain-specific therapeutic targets for this devastating disease. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Human Stem Cell Models of Dementia
Positive predictions were made in the aftermath of the development of induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology for the use of patient-specific iPSCs to model neurological diseases, including dementia. The author reviews the current state of the field, and explores how close we are to the goal of in vitro models that capture all aspects of the cell and molecular biology of dementia. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract | Full Article

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

BioProcess International Conference & Exhibition - Boston MA
Roche, Inception Sciences, and Versant Partner on Therapies for MS
Roche has entered into an exclusive partnership with Inception Sciences and Versant Ventures to create Inception 5, a new company dedicated to the research and development of small molecule remyelinating therapies for patients with multiple sclerosis (MS). [GeneticEngineering & Biotechnology News] Press Release

BioLineRx In-Licenses Novel Compound for Treatment of Neuropathic Pain
BioLineRx Ltd. announced it has in-licensed BL-1110, a novel compound for the treatment of neuropathic pain. BL-1110 is a small molecule that targets the critical TLR4/MD-2 complex formation, thus preventing the binding of morphine to the TLR4 receptor in glial cells. [BioLineRx Ltd.] Press Release

International Stem Cell Corporation Completes Important Study in Parkinson’s Disease Program
The recently completed IND-enabling study transplanting rodents with human neural stem cells, derived from International Stem Cell Corporation’s proprietary parthenogenetic stem cell platform, showed that the cells are well tolerated even at high doses up to the equivalent of 2.2 billion cells in humans. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

$15 Million Award to Go Toward Exploring New Treatments for Autism, Other Brain Disorders
Duke Medicine has been awarded $15 million to support an innovative research program that explores the use of umbilical cord blood cells to treat autism, stroke, cerebral palsy and related brain disorders. [Duke University Health System] Press Release

Success in Kadimastem’s First Pre-Clinical Trial for Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)
The trial examined the effectiveness of injecting Kadimastem’s unique support cells (astrocytes) into the spinal fluid of a mouse model of ALS. The results of the trial showed an increased life expectancy for the mice injected with the cells. [Kadimastem Ltd.] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.
Brain Wave Hits California
Governor Jerry Brown signed into law a state budget that allocates US$2 million to establish the California Blueprint for Research to Advance Innovations in Neuroscience (BRAIN) project. [Nature News] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW 2014 Best of American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO) Meeting
August 8-9, 2014
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Researcher – Human Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation in Parkinson’s Disease (VIB Center for the Biology of Disease)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Experimental Neuroscience, Stem Cell Biology, and Neurotransplantation (Johns Hopkins University)

Postdoctoral Positions – Optics and Bioengineering for Engineering and/or Neuroscientific Applications (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Position – Cellular Neuroscience (Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique – CNRS)

Postdoctoral Scientist – Neural Stem Cells (Texas Biomedical Research Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular/Cellular Neuroscience (CIMA/University of Navarra)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurotoxicity and Epigenetics (Thomas Jefferson University)

Max Planck Research Group Leader – Neuroscience (Center of Advanced European Studies and Research – Caesar)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Morphogenetic Signaling Pathways in Development and Disease (University of Rochester Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neurophysiology of Addiction (Medical University of South Carolina)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Adult Neural Stem Cells (INSERM Institute for Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cells and Regeneration (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Scientist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Neural Differentiation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Pluripotent Stem Cell Media Development, High Throughput Screening (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Cell Culture Support Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientist – Immunology/Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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