Volume 8.17 | May 7

Neural Cell News 8.17 May 7, 2014
Neural Cell News
     In this issue: Publications | Reviews | Science News | Industry News | Policy News | Events | Jobs
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TOP STORY
Young Blood: Stem Cell Researchers Identify Protein that Rejuvenates Brain and Skeletal Muscle Function in Old Mice
Researchers have shown that a protein they previously demonstrated can make failing hearts in aging mice appear more like those of young and healthy mice similarly improves brain and skeletal muscle function in aging mice. They report that injections of a protein known as GDF11 improved the exercise capability of mice and improved function of the olfactory region of the brains in the older mice. [Press release from Harvard Medical School discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Trrap-Dependent Histone Acetylation Specifically Regulates Cell-Cycle Gene Transcription to Control Neural Progenitor Fate Decisions
Investigators showed that the histone acetyltransferase cofactor transformation/transcription domain-associated protein (Trrap) specifically regulates activation of cell-cycle genes, thereby integrating discrete cell-intrinsic programs of cell-cycle progression and epigenetic regulation of gene transcription in order to control neurogenesis. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract | Full Article

Young Blood Reverses Age-Related Impairments in Cognitive Function and Synaptic Plasticity in Mice
Genome-wide microarray analysis of heterochronic parabionts – in which circulatory systems of young and aged animals are connected – identified synaptic plasticity-related transcriptional changes in the hippocampus of aged mice. Dendritic spine density of mature neurons increased and synaptic plasticity improved in the hippocampus of aged heterochronic parabionts. [Nat Med] Abstract | Press Release

Prospective Identification and Purification of Quiescent Adult Neural Stem Cells from Their In Vivo Niche
Adult neurogenic niches harbor quiescent neural stem cells; however, their in vivo identity has been elusive. Researchers prospectively isolated GFAP+CD133+ (quiescent neural stem cells) and GFAP+CD133+EGFR+ (activated neural stem cells) from the adult ventricular-subventricular zone. [Neuron] Abstract

Aberrant Topoisomerase-1 DNA Lesions Are Pathogenic in Neurodegenerative Genome Instability Syndromes
Scientists observed the endogenous accumulation of pathogenic topoisomerase-1 (Top1)-DNA cleavage complexes (Top1ccs) in murine models of ataxia telangiectasia and spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy 1. They found that the defective DNA damage response factors in these two diseases cooperatively modulated Top1cc turnover in a non-epistatic and ATM kinase-independent manner. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Interneuron Precursor Transplants in Adult Hippocampus Reverse Psychosis-Relevant Features in a Mouse Model of Hippocampal Disinhibition
Researchers used the cyclin D2 knockout mouse model to test potential links between hippocampal interneuron deficits and psychosis-relevant neurobehavioral phenotypes. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Mesenchymal Stem Cells from Human Fat Engineered to Secrete BMP4 Are Nononcogenic, Suppress Brain Cancer, and Prolong Survival
Researchers sought to engineer bone morphogenetic protein 4 (BMP4)-secreting human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSC) and evaluate their therapeutic potential on glioblastoma. The reciprocal effects of hAMSCs on primary human brain tumor-initiating cell proliferation, differentiation, and migration were evaluated in vitro. [Clin Cancer Res] Full Article | Press Release

The Contribution of Ketone Bodies to Basal and Activity-Dependent Neuronal Oxidation In Vivo
Researchers found that ketone bodies present at sufficient concentration to saturate metabolism provides full support of basal (housekeeping) energy needs and up to approximately half of the activity-dependent oxidative needs of neurons. [J Cereb Blood Flow Metab] Abstract

Downregulation of SCAI Enhances Glioma Cell Invasion and Stem Cell Like Phenotype by Activating Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling
Investigators found that levels of SCAI (suppressor of cancer cell invasion) protein and mRNA expression were significantly downregulated in glioma tissues and cell lines. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
 
REVIEWS
Mechanisms of Brain Evolution: Regulation of Neural Progenitor Cell Diversity and Cell Cycle Length
In the last few years, several studies have revisited long-held assumptions in the field of brain development and evolution providing us with a fundamentally new vision on the mechanisms controlling its size and shape, hence function. Among these studies, some described hitherto unforeseeable subtypes of neural progenitors while others reinterpreted long-known observations about their cell cycle in alternative new ways. [Neurosci Res] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine Asia Congress 2014
 
SCIENCE NEWS
Further Data from First Clinical Trial of ReNeuron’s Stem Cell Therapy for Stroke to Be Presented at Leading Stroke Conference
ReNeuron Group plc provided a further update on the PISCES Phase I clinical trial of its ReN001 stem cell therapy for disabled stroke patients ahead of the commencement of a Phase II efficacy study for which patient enrolment has now opened. Long term follow-up data out to 12 months in all patients treated in the PISCES study are being presented. [Press release from ReNeuron Group plc discussing research presented at the 23rd European Stroke Conference, Nice] Press Release

Atypical Form of Alzheimer’s Disease May Be Present in a More Widespread Number of Patients, Mayo Clinic Says
Neuroscientists have defined a subtype of Alzheimer’s disease (AD) that they say is neither well recognized nor treated appropriately. The variant, called hippocampal sparing AD, made up 11 percent of the 1,821 AD-confirmed brains examined by researchers – suggesting this subtype is relatively widespread in the general population. [Press release from Mayo Clinic discussing research presented at the 66th American Academy of Neurology Annual Meeting, Philadelphia] Press Release | Video

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INDUSTRY NEWS
Americord Funds Clinical Trial Investigating Stem Cell Therapy for Alzheimer’s Disease
Americord announced that it has provided funding to MEDIPOST to support their clinical trial investigating the use of NEUROSTEM-AD® in the treatment of patients with Alzheimer’s Disease. NEUROSTEM-AD® is a treatment agent for Alzheimer’s Disease that uses human umbilical cord blood-derived mesenchymal stem cells. [Americord Registry] Press Release

Aduro BioTech Announces Initation of a Clinical Trial of Its Novel Immunotherapy in Patients with Brain Cancer at Providence Cancer Center
Aduro BioTech, Inc. announced that the first patients have been enrolled in a Phase I clinical trial to evaluate its novel immunotherapy ADU-623 in patients with high-grade glioma, a form of brain cancer. [BusinessWire]
Press Release

Neuroscientist Larry Abbott Elected to National Academy of Sciences
Laurence Abbott, PhD, the William Bloor Professor of Neuroscience, was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in recognition of his distinguished and continuing achievements in original research. [Columbia University Medical Center] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW International Congress on Stem Cells and Tissue Formation
July 8-11, 2014
Dresden, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neurophysiology of Addiction (Medical University of South Carolina)

NEW Postdoctoral Research Associate – Molecular Neuroscience (Wellcome Trust-MRC Institute of Metabolic Science)

Postdoctoral Position – Functional Characterization of Neurons Derived from Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (Radboud University Nijmegen)

Postdoctoral Position – Spinal Cord Adult Neural Stem Cells (INSERM Institute for Neuroscience)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Parkinson’s Research (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Fellow / Senior Research Associate – Neural Stem Cells (The University of Hong Kong)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cells and Regeneration (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience & Cell Biology (Harvard Medical School)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Research Technologist – hPSC (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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