Volume 8.15 | Apr 23

Neural Cell News 8.15 April 23, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Turning Science on its Head: Researchers Offer New Views of Body’s Insulating Material
Neuroscientists have made a discovery that turns 160 years of neuroanatomy on its head. Myelin, the electrical insulating material in the body long known to be essential for the fast transmission of impulses along the axons of nerve cells, is not as ubiquitous as thought. [Press release from Harvard discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Colony-Stimulating Factor 1 Receptor Signaling Is Necessary for Microglia Viability, Unmasking a Microglia Progenitor Cell in the Adult Brain
The role of colony-stimulating factor 1 receptor (CSF1R) signaling in microglial homeostasis in the adult brain is largely unknown. To this end, researchers tested the effects of selective CSF1R inhibitors on microglia in adult mice. Surprisingly, extensive treatment results in elimination of approximately 99% of all microglia brain-wide, showing that microglia in the adult brain are physiologically dependent upon CSF1R signaling. [Neuron]
Abstract | Press Release

Conditions and Constraints for Astrocyte Calcium Signaling in the Hippocampal Mossy Fiber Pathway
Investigators used genetically encoded Ca2+ and glutamate indicators as well as pharmacogenetic and electrical control of neurotransmitter release to explore astrocyte activity in the hippocampal mossy fiber pathway. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

Pharmacological Chaperones Stabilize Retromer to Limit APP Processing
The authors determined whether pharmacological chaperones can enhance retromer stability and function. An in vitro assay identified one molecule that stabilized retromer against thermal denaturation. They turned to cultured hippocampal neurons, showing that this small molecule increases the levels of retromer proteins, shifts amyloid-precursor protein (APP) away from the endosome, and decreases the pathogenic processing of APP. [Nat Chem Biol] Abstract | Press Release

Enhancing Adult Nerve Regeneration through the Knockdown of Retinoblastoma Protein
Researchers described a role for the retinoblastoma (Rb) protein, widely expressed in adult sensory neurons and their axons, during regeneration. In adult sensory neurons, Rb short interfering RNA knockdown or Rb1 deletion in vitro enhances neurite outgrowth and branching. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

MHC-I Expression Renders Catecholaminergic Neurons Susceptible to T-Cell-Mediated Degeneration
Researchers provide evidence from immunolabel, RNA expression and mass spectrometry analysis of postmortem samples that human catecholaminergic substantia nigra and locus coeruleus neurons express MHC-I, and that this molecule is inducible in human stem cell-derived dopamine neurons. [Nat Commun] Abstract | Press Release

TRF2-Mediated Stabilization of hREST4 Is Critical for the Differentiation and Maintenance of Neural Progenitors
Researchers found that the telomere repeat binding factor 2 (TRF2)-mediated counterbalance between human Repressor Element-1 Silencing Transcription Factor 4 (hREST4) and REST is vital for both the generation and maintenance of neural progenitor cells, suggesting an important role for TRF2 in both neurogenesis and function of the central nervous system. [Stem Cells] Abstract

A PCNA-Derived Cell Permeable Peptide Selectively Inhibits Neuroblastoma Cell Growth
Scientists designed a cell permeable peptide containing the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) L126-Y133 sequence. They report that this peptide selectively kills human neuroblastoma cells, especially those with MYCN gene amplification, with much less toxicity to non-malignant human cells. [PLoS One]
Full Article | Press Release

Neural Stem Cells Genetically-Modified to Express Neprilysin Reduce Pathology in Alzheimer Transgenic Models
Findings revealed that stem cell-mediated delivery of neprilysin provides marked and significant reductions in beta-amyloid (Aβ) pathology and increases synaptic density in both 3xTg-Alzheimer’s disease and Thy1-APP transgenic mice. Remarkably, Aβ plaque loads are reduced not only in the hippocampus and subiculum adjacent to engrafted neural stem cells, but also within the amygdala and medial septum, areas that receive afferent projections from the engrafted region. [Stem Cell Res Ther] Full Article | Press Release

Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster
Cortical Neurogenesis from Pluripotent Stem Cells: Complexity Emerging from Simplicity
Pluripotent stem cell (PSC)-derived neurons can integrate into the brain following in vivo transplantation and display patterns of morphology and connectivity specific of cortical neurons. PSC-corticogenesis thus emerges as a robust model that provides new ways to link cortical development, evolution, and disease. [Curr Opin Neurobiol] Abstract

NG2 Cells (Polydendrocytes): Listeners to the Neural Network with Diverse Properties
This review first summarizes recent findings on the nature and mechanism underlying the diversity of NG2 cells with regard to their proliferative and differentiation behavior. This will be followed by a synopsis of observations on how their microenvironment, particularly neuronal activity, influences their dynamic behavior, and how these changes in NG2 cells could in turn influence neural function and animal behavior. [Glia] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

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ReNeuron Signs Agreement to Lease a New R&D, Manufacturing and Headquarters Facility in South Wales
ReNeuron Group plc announced that it has signed an agreement with the Welsh Government to lease a landmark building at Pencoed Technology Park, near Cardiff, South Wales. A key element of ReNeuron’s £33 million funding in 2013 was support from the Welsh Government and the Welsh Life Sciences Fund, allied to the relocation of the business to a new state-of-the-art facility in South Wales. [ReNeuron Group plc] Press Release

StemCells, Inc. Completes Enrollment in Spinal Cord Injury Trial
StemCells, Inc. announced that it has completed enrollment in the Company’s Phase I/II clinical trial in spinal cord injury. The multi-national, open-label, Phase I/II trial is evaluating both safety and preliminary efficacy of StemCells, Inc.’s proprietary HuCNS-SC® human neural stem cells as a treatment for chronic spinal cord injury. [StemCells, Inc.] Press Release

Neuralstem Spinal Cord Injury Stem Cell Trial Approved to Commence at University of California, San Diego
Neuralstem, Inc. announced that the Institutional Review Board of the University of California, San Diego, School of Medicine has approved the Phase I safety trial to treat chronic spinal cord injury with its NSI-566 stem cells. [Neuralstem, Inc.] Press Release

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NEW 2014 Stem Cell Meeting on the Mesa
October 7-9, 2014
La Jolla, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Stem Cell Biology, Neuroscience, Parkinson’s Research (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Fellow / Senior Research Associate – Neural Stem Cells (The University of Hong Kong)

Research Technician – Neural Tube Development In Vivo (King’s College London)

MSc & PhD Positions – Cell Biology, Neurobiology, Neuroimmunology, Cancer Biology, Computational Biology (Hanyang University)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (The Vision Institute)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow / Research Officer – Stem Cell Research (Bioprocessing Technology Institute)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Stem Cells and Regeneration (UT Southwestern Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience & Cell Biology (Harvard Medical School)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neurobiology (Italian Institute of Technology – IIT)

PhD Student Position – Retinal Research (Universität Tübingen)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology & Alzheimer’s Disease (Tel Aviv University)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Research Associate – Cell Separation (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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