Volume 8.10 | Mar 19

Neural Cell News 8.10 March 19, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Stem Cells from Muscle Can Repair Nerve Damage after Injury
Stem cells derived from human muscle tissue were able to repair nerve damage and restore function in an animal model of sciatic nerve injury, according to researchers. They found that, with prompting from specific nerve-growth factors, the stem cells could differentiate into neurons and glial support cells, including Schwann cells. [Press release from the University of Pittsburgh School of Medicine discussing online prepublication in The Journal of Clinical Investigation] Press Release | Full Article
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Microglial CR3 Activation Triggers Long-Term Synaptic Depression in the Hippocampus via NADPH Oxidase
Investigators showed that when hypoxia and an inflammatory stimulus (lipopolysaccharide) are combined, they act synergistically to trigger long-term synaptic depression that requires microglial CR3, activation of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase (NADPH oxidase), and GluA2-mediated A-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid receptor internalization. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release | Video

Dedifferentiation of Neurons Precedes Tumor Formation in lola Mutants
Researchers identify Lola as a transcription factor that is required to maintain neurons in a differentiated state. They showed that Lola represses neural stem cell genes and cell-cycle genes in postmitotic neurons. In lola mutants, neurons dedifferentiate, turn on neural stem cell genes, and begin to divide, forming tumors. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Intraspinal Neural Stem Cell Transplantation in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Phase I Trial Outcomes
Researchers assessed the safety and feasibility of stem cell transplantation into lumbar and/or cervical spinal cord regions in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis subjects. [Ann Neurol] Full Article | Press Release

Generation of Neural Progenitor Cells by Chemical Cocktails and Hypoxia
Scientists report that neural progenitor cells can be generated from mouse embryonic fibroblasts by a chemical cocktail, namely VCR (V, VPA, an inhibitor of HDACs; C, CHIR99021, an inhibitor of GSK-3 kinases and R, Repsox, an inhibitor of TGF-β pathways), under a physiological hypoxic condition. [Cell Res] Full Article

Aβ-Induced Golgi Fragmentation in Alzheimer’s Disease Enhances Aβ Production
Golgi fragmentation occurs in neurons of patients with Alzheimer’s disease, but the underlying molecular mechanism causing the defects and the subsequent effects on disease development remain unknown. Researchers examined the Golgi structure in APPswe/PS1∆E9 transgenic mouse and tissue culture models. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

Role of BRCA1 in Brain Development
Results suggest distinct apoptotic and centrosomal functions of Breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 (BRCA1) in neural progenitors, with important implications to understand the sensitivity of the embryonic brain to DNA damage, as well as the developmental regulation of brain size. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Editorial

Neurogenesis and Vascularization of the Damaged Brain Using a Lactate-Releasing Biomimetic Scaffold
Investigators showed that cell-free biomimetic scaffolds consisting of radially aligned electrospun poly-L/DL lactic acid (PLA70/30) nanofibers release L-lactate and reproduce the 3D organization and supportive function of radial glia embryonic neural stem cells. The topology of PLA nanofibers supports neuronal migration while L-lactate released during PLA degradation acts as an alternative fuel for neurons and is required for progenitor maintenance. [Biomaterials] Abstract

Extended Wakefulness: Compromised Metabolics in and Degeneration of Locus Ceruleus Neurons
Researchers identified mitochondrial stress in locus ceruleus neurons (LCns) upon wakefulness, highlight an essential role for nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent deacetylase sirtuin type 3 (SirT3) activation in maintaining metabolic homeostasis in LCns across wakefulness, and demonstrated that extended wakefulness results in reduced SirT3 activity and, ultimately, degeneration of LCns. [J Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

A Stress-Induced Cellular Aging Model with Postnatal Neural Stem Cells
Accumulating evidence implicates that the senescence of neural stem cells (NSCs) is of paramount importance to the aging of the central neural system. Researchers have successfully established a cellular model that will be of broad utilities to the molecular exploration of NSC senescence and aging. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Quantitative Analysis Reveals Dominance of Gliogenesis Over Neurogenesis in an Adult Brainstem Oscillator
Researchers performed a quantitative analysis of the resident neural progenitors and their progeny in the adult pacemaker nucleus of the weakly electric fish, Apteronotus leptorhynchus. [Dev Neurobiol] Abstract

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Mechanisms of Neurodegeneration and Axonal Dysfunction in Multiple Sclerosis
With the aim of identifying potential novel therapeutic targets in multiple sclerosis, the authors reviewed research on the pathological mechanisms of neuroaxonal dysfunction and injury, such as altered ion channel activity, and the endogenous neuroprotective pathways that counteract oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. [Nat Rev Neurol] Abstract

Stem Cells on the Brain: Modeling Neurodevelopmental and Neurodegenerative Diseases Using Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Seven years have passed since the initial report of the generation of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) from adult human somatic cells, and in the intervening time the field of neuroscience has developed numerous disease models using this technology. The authors review progress in the field and describe both the advantages and potential pitfalls of modeling neurodegenerative and neurodevelopmental diseases using this technology. [J Neurogenet] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

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ReNeuron to Receive Support from Foundation Fighting Blindness for Its Retinal Stem Cell Therapy Candidate for Treatment of Retinitis Pigmentosa
ReNeuron Group plc announced that its ReN003 retinal stem cell therapy candidate for retinitis pigmentosa is to receive support from the US-based Foundation Fighting Blindness. [ReNeuron Group plc] Press Release

AIM Receives $1 Million Gift to Advance Stem Cell Research
Inaugurating a new era of philanthropic giving for stem cell research in Alabama, the Alabama Institute of Medicine (AIM) is pleased to announce the generous donation of $1 Million dollars from an anonymous Birmingham resident. [Alabama Institute of Medicine] Press Release

Families of Spinal Muscular Atrophy Awards New Research Funding of $95,000 to Dr. Kejun Han
Families of SMA has awarded 79 basic grants for a total of $9,507,612 in the past 10 years. Dr. Ke-Jun Han at the University of Colorado will receive $95,000 to explore the transport of SMN protein into motor axons. [Families of SMA] Press Release

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Alliance for Regenerative Medicine Announces Introduction of Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the Senate
The Alliance for Regenerative Medicine announced the introduction of the Regenerative Medicine Promotion Act of 2014 in the U.S. Senate and expressed appreciation for the efforts of its lead sponsors, Senators Barbara Boxer (D-CA) and Mark Kirk (R-IL). [Alliance for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW EMBO Conference: Stem Cells in Cancer and Regenerative Medicine
October 9-12, 2014
Heidelberg, Germany

NEW Cell Symposia: Translational Neuroscience
November 13-14, 2014
Pentagon City, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience & Cell Biology (Harvard Medical School)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neurobiology (Italian Institute of Technology – IIT)

Postdoctoral Positions – Cellular Neuroscience and Autism (University of Edinburgh)

PhD Student Position – Retinal Research (Universität Tübingen)

Director of GMP/GLP Quality Operations (University of Pennsylvania, Perelman School of Medicine)

Cell Culture Specialist – Manufacturing of Cell Therapy Products (Tisch MS Research Center of New York)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology & Alzheimer’s Disease (Tel Aviv University)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Boris Family Fellowships – Neural Stem Cell Research (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Modeling Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (Università di Trento)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (VIB Vesalius Research Center Belgium)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Scientific Communications & Publishing Coordinator (STEMCELL Technologies, Inc.)

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