Volume 8.07 | Feb 26

Neural Cell News 8.07 February 26, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Researchers Generate New Neurons in Brains, Spinal Cords of Living Adult Mammals
Researchers created new nerve cells in the brains and spinal cords of living mammals without the need for stem cell transplants to replenish lost cells. They successfully turned scar-forming astrocytes in the spinal cords of adult mice into neurons. [Press release from The University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center discussing online prepublication in Nature Communications] Press Release | Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Axonal Control of the Adult Neural Stem Cell Niche
Results indicate that supraependymal serotonergic (5HT) axons directly interact with neural stem cells to regulate neurogenesis via 5HT2C. [Cell Stem Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Restoring Visual Function to Blind Mice with a Photoswitch that Exploits Electrophysiological Remodeling of Retinal Ganglion Cells
Investigators report a chemical photoswitch named DENAQ that restores retinal responses to white light of intensity similar to ordinary daylight. DENAQ confers light sensitivity on a hyperpolarization-activated inward current that is enhanced in degenerated retina, enabling optical control of retinal ganglion cell firing. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release | Download Video Abstract

Pioneering Axons Regulate Neuronal Polarization in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
Scientists showed that neuronal polarization occurs in a microenvironment in the lower intermediate zone, where the cell adhesion molecule transient axonal glycoprotein-1 is expressed in cortical efferent axons. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

Palmitoylation of δ-Catenin by DHHC5 Mediates Activity-Induced Synapse Plasticity
Researchers demonstrate that the intracellular cadherin binding protein δ-catenin is transiently palmitoylated by DHHC5 after enhanced synaptic activity and that palmitoylation increases δ-catenin-cadherin interactions at synapses. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Random Monoallelic Gene Expression Increases upon Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation
Random autosomal monoallelic gene expression refers to the transcription of a gene from one of two homologous alleles. Researchers assessed the dynamics of monoallelic expression during development through an allele-specific RNA-sequencing screen in clonal populations of hybrid mouse embryonic stem cells and neural progenitor cells. [Dev Cell] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

Intercellular Propagated Misfolding of Wild-Type Cu/Zn Superoxide Dismutase Occurs via Exosome-Dependent and -Independent Mechanisms
Using NSC-34 motor neuron-like cells, scientists demonstrated that misfolded mutant and human wild-type Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase can traverse between cells via two nonexclusive mechanisms: protein aggregates released from dying cells and taken up by macropinocytosis, and exosomes secreted from living cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release

Glycan-Dependent Binding of Galectin-1 to Neuropilin-1 Promotes Axonal Regeneration after Spinal Cord Injury
Investigators showed that galectin-1, an endogenous glycan-binding protein, selectively bound to the neuropilin-1/PlexinA4 receptor complex in injured neurons through a glycan-dependent mechanism, interrupts the semaphorin 3A pathway and contributes to axonal regeneration and locomotor recovery after spinal cord injury. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Umbilical Cord Blood Cells Regulate the Differentiation of Endogenous Neural Stem Cells in Hypoxic Ischemic Neonatal Rats via the Hedgehog Signaling Pathway
Researchers explored the effects of umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation on the differentiation of endogenous neural stem cells and their underlying mechanisms. [Brain Res] Abstract

Human Adult White Matter Progenitor Cells Are Multipotent Neuroprogenitors Similar to Adult Hippocampal Progenitors
Data show that adult neural progenitor cells (aNPC) from subcortical white matter are multipotent NPC with long-term expandability similar to NPC from hippocampus, making them a more easily accessible source for possible autologous NPC-based treatment strategies. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Intrinsically Active and Pacemaker Neurons in Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neuronal Populations
By using mouse embryonic stem cells, researchers provide evidence for the existence of intrinsically active neurons in pluripotent stem cell-neuronal networks based on extracellular multielectrode array and intracellular patch-clamp recordings. [Stem Cell Rep] Abstract | Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Take the "if" out of "diff": Reduce variability when differentiating to neural progenitors
Possible Roles of Astrocytes in Estrogen Neuroprotection during Cerebral Ischemia
Researchers summarize the data in support of possible roles for astrocytes in the mediation of neuroprotection by 17β-Estradiol against cerebral ischemia. [Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

Cell Line Development Asia 2014
Pitt Scientists Receive $3.5 Million for Brain Research from DSF Charitable Foundation
With $1.75 million in support from the DSF Charitable Foundation, University of Pittsburgh Brain Institute researchers will begin to establish a NeuroDiscovery Center, akin to a Bell Labs for neuroscience, and hunt for new drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, such as ALS, Huntington’s and Parkinson’s disease. Thanks to another $1.8 million DSF gift, another team of neuroscientists and clinicians will explore the application of a new imaging technology to traumatic brain injury, particularly in wounded veterans of the U.S. armed forces. [UPMC/University of Pittsburgh Schools of the Health Sciences] Press Release

Living Cell Technologies Limited: Statement on NTCELL Phase I Clinical Trial
Living Cell Technologies Limited provided a statement of facts regarding the withdrawal from publication of a pre-clinical study of NTCELL and the impact of this on the clinical trial underway at Auckland City Hospital. [Living Cell Technologies Limited] Press Release

From our sponsor: Pluripotent cell isolation for regenerative medicine. Request a free wallchart from Nature.
AAAS Launches Open-Access Journal
Joining a herd of other scientific societies, AAAS (American Association for the Advancement of Science) announced that it will launch the organization’s first online, fully open-access journal early next year. The new journal, called Science Advances, will give authors another outlet for papers that they are willing to pay to make immediately free to the public. [ScienceInsider] Editorial

National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicines Congress Asia
October 21-23, 2014
Seoul, South Korea

NEW Cell Culture World Congress Asia
October 21-23, 2014
Seoul, South Korea

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Cell Culture Specialist – Manufacturing of Cell Therapy Products (Tisch MS Research Center of New York)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neurobiology & Alzheimer’s Disease (Tel Aviv University)

Assistant/Associate Professors – Allergic Inflammation and Sensory Neurobiology (North Carolina State University College of Veterinary Medicine)

Boris Family Fellowships – Neural Stem Cell Research (McMaster University)

Postdoctoral Position – Modeling Neurodevelopmental Disorders with Human Pluripotent Stem Cells (Università di Trento)

Postdoctoral Researcher – Pathogenesis of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (VIB Vesalius Research Center Belgium)

Postdoctoral Position – Developmental Neurobiology (Cincinnati Children’s Hospital Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – RNA Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Electrophysiological Properties of Human Stem-Cell Derived Neurons (University of Szeged)

Research Technologist – Pluripotent Stem Cells (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – PSC Biology and Bioengineering (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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