Volume 8.06 | Feb 19

Neural Cell News 8.06 February 19, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Researchers Hijack Cancer Migration Mechanism to “Move” Brain Tumors
One factor that makes glioblastoma cancers so difficult to treat is that malignant cells from the tumors spread throughout the brain by following nerve fibers and blood vessels to invade new locations. Researchers have learned to hijack this migratory mechanism, turning it against the cancer by using a film of nanofibers thinner than human hair to lure tumor cells away. [Press release from the Georgia Institute of Technology discussing online prepublication in Nature Materials] Press Release | Abstract | Video
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
C11orf95-RELA Fusions Drive Oncogenic NF-κB Signaling in Ependymoma
Investigators showed that more than two-thirds of supratentorial ependymomas contain oncogenic fusions between RELA, the principal effector of canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling, and an uncharacterized gene, C11orf95. C11orf95-RELA fusion proteins translocated spontaneously to the nucleus to activate NF-κB target genes, and rapidly transformed neural stem cells – the cell of origin of ependymoma – to form these tumors in mice. [Nature] Abstract

Temporal Identity Transition from Purkinje Cell Progenitors to GABAergic Interneuron Progenitors in the Cerebellum
Findings suggest that the temporal identity transition of cerebellar GABAergic neuron progenitors from Purkinje cell progenitors to Pax2-positive interneuron progenitors is negatively regulated by Olig2 and positively by Gsx1, and contributes to understanding temporal control of neuronal progenitor identities. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Running Rescues Defective Adult Neurogenesis by Shortening the Length of the Cell Cycle of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cells
Investigators showed that running positively affects the cell cycle kinetics of specific subpopulations of newly-generated neurons and suggests that the plasticity of neural stem cells without cell cycle inhibitory control is reactivated by running, with implications for the long-term modulation of neurogenesis. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Jagged1 Is Necessary for Postnatal and Adult Neurogenesis in the Dentate Gyrus
Researchers showed that conditional inactivation of Jagged1 affects neural stem cell maintenance and proliferation during postnatal and adult neurogenesis of the subgranular zone. [Dev Biol] Abstract

Embryonic Cerebrospinal Fluid Nanovesicles Carry Evolutionarily Conserved Molecules and Promote Neural Stem Cell Amplification
Data showed that the embryonic CSF serves as a medium for the distribution of nanovesicles, including exosomes, and the coordinated transfer of evolutionary conserved molecules that regulate embryonic neural stem cell amplification during corticogenesis. [PLoS One] Full Article

Regulatory Roles of miRNA in the Human Neural Stem Cell Transformation to Glioma Stem Cells
To investigate the expressional alternation of microRNAs (miRNA) during the malignant transformation and development of human glioma, researchers measured miRNA expression profile as well as mRNA expression profile in normal human neural stem cells and human glioma stem cells. [J Cell Biochem] Abstract

Serotonin-2C Receptor Involved Serotonin-Induced Ca2+ Mobilizations in Neuronal Progenitors and Neurons in Rat Suprachiasmatic Nucleus
The authors generated a subclone of a suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) progenitor cell line expressing Ca2+ sensors and compared its 5-HT receptor signaling with that of rat SCN neurons in brain slices. [Sci Rep]
Full Article

Posttranscriptional Control of the Stem Cell and Neurogenic Programs by the Nonsense-Mediated RNA Decay Pathway
The mechanisms dictating whether a cell proliferates or differentiates have undergone intense scrutiny, but they remain poorly understood. Researchers report that UPF1, a central component in the nonsense-mediated RNA decay pathway, plays a key role in this decision by promoting the proliferative, undifferentiated cell state. [Cell Rep] Abstract | Full Article | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

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Insights into the Physiological Function of the β-Amyloid Precursor Protein: Beyond Alzheimer’s Disease
This article reviews studies on the structure, expression and post-translational processing of β-amyloid precursor protein (APP), as well as studies on the effects of APP in vitro and in vivo. APP is likely to be involved in neural stem cell development, neuronal survival, neurite outgrowth and neurorepair. [J Neurochem] Abstract

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International Stem Cell Corporation Completes Pre-IND Meeting with FDA for Parkinson’s Disease Cell Therapy
International Stem Cell Corporation announced the completion of discussions with the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) regarding its Parkinson’s disease cell therapy program through a pre-Investigational New Drug (pre-IND) meeting. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

Scripps Florida Team Awarded $2.3 Million to Unlock Mysteries of Long-Term Memory
Scientists from the Florida campus of The Scripps Research Institute have been awarded approximately $2.3 million from the National Institute of Mental Health to study the processes involved in long-term memory and how deficits in those processes contribute to brain diseases. The study focuses on “axonal transport,” the cellular process whereby gene products move to and from a nerve cell body along its axon. [The Scripps Research Institute] Press Release

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