Volume 8.03 | Jan 29

Neural Cell News 8.03 January 29, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Watching Molecules Morph into Memories: Breakthrough Allows Scientists to Probe How Memories Form in Nerve Cells
Neurons are extremely sensitive to any kind of disruption, yet only by probing their innermost workings can scientists view the molecular processes that culminate in memories. Researchers developed a mouse model in which they fluorescently tagged all molecules of messenger RNA that code for beta-actin protein – an essential structural protein found in large amounts in brain neurons and considered a key player in making memories. [Press release from the Albert Einstein College of Medicine discussing online prepublication in Science]
Press Release | Abstract 1 | Abstract 2
Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Neuronal Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Is a Determinant of Selective Neurodegeneration
In amyotrophic lateral sclerosis model mice expressing mutant superoxide dismutase (SOD1), reduction of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) function using gene ablation, viral gene therapy, or pharmacological inhibition significantly delayed muscle denervation. In the presence of mutant SOD1, MMP-9 expressed by fast motor neurons themselves enhances activation of ER stress and is sufficient to trigger axonal die-back. [Neuron] Abstract | Press Release

LRRK2 Regulates Synaptogenesis and Dopamine Receptor Activation through Modulation of PKA Activity
Findings revealed a previously unknown regulatory role for leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) in protein kinase A (PKA) signaling and suggest a pathogenic mechanism of striatal projection neuron dysfunction in Parkinson’s disease. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

TBC1D24 Regulates Neuronal Migration and Maturation through Modulation of the ARF6-Dependent Pathway
Findings demonstrate an essential role of TBC1 domain family member 24 (TBC1D24) in neuronal migration and maturation and highlight the physiological relevance of the ARF6-dependent membrane-trafficking pathway in brain development. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Delayed Transplantation of Precursor Cell-Derived Astrocytes Provides Multiple Benefits in a Rat Model of Parkinsons
In addition to dopaminergic neuron loss, it is clear that Parkinson disease includes other pathological changes, including loss of additional neuronal populations. As a means of addressing multiple pathological changes with a single therapeutically-relevant approach, researchers employed delayed transplantation of a unique class of astrocytes, GDAsBMP, that are generated in vitro by directed differentiation of glial precursors. [EMBO Mol Med] Full Article | Press Release

Cross-Regulation of Connexin43 and β-Catenin Influences Differentiation of Human Neural Progenitor Cells
Scientists explored the function of Connexin43 in the differentiation of human neural progenitor cells using viral vectors that mediate the overexpression or knockdown of the protein. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Physiological Normoxia and Absence of EGF Is Required for the Long-Term Propagation of Anterior Neural Precursors from Human Pluripotent Cells
Investigators describe a new methodology to generate cryo-preservable human pluripotent stem cell-derived neural precursor cells that retain an anterior identity and are propagatable long-term prior to terminal differentiation, thus abrogating regular de novo neuralization. [PLoS One] Full Article

Effect of the N-Methyl-D-Aspartate NR2B Subunit Antagonist Ifenprodil on Precursor Cell Proliferation in the Hippocampus
Scientists examined the contribution of the NR2B N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit to adult neurogenesis/ cell proliferation under physiological conditions and following an excitotoxic insult. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract

Conditioned Medium of Human Adipose-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Mediates Protection in Neurons following Glutamate Excitotoxicity by Regulating Energy Metabolism and GAP-43 Expression
Researchers investigated the neuroprotective effects of human adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) on cortical neurons using models of glutamate excitotoxicity. Compared to untreated control groups, AMSCs and AMSC-conditioned-medium partially and similarly reduced neuronal cell damages, as indicated by reduced lactate dehydrogenase release, a decreased number of trypan-positive cells and a decline in the number of apoptotic nuclei. [Metab Brain Dis] Full Article

Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications
Consequences of Cancer Treatments on Adult Hippocampal Neurogenesis: Implications for Cognitive Function and Depressive Symptoms
This review discusses the effects of cancer treatments on adult hippocampal neurogenesis and proposes a link between the inhibition of the neurogenetic process in the hippocampus and the advent of the cognitive and mood-based deficits observed in patients and animal models undergoing cancer therapies. [Neuro Oncol] Abstract

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Neuronascent, Inc. Announces Issuance of US Patent Covering Second-Generation Neurorestorative Therapeutic Candidate
Neuronascent, Inc. announced the issuance of the United States patent covering a new compound family that includes Neuronascent’s lead candidate, NNI-370 for Parkinson’s disease and other neurodegenerative disorders. This is an important expansion of the company’s patent portfolio of small-molecule therapies for neurologic disorders. [Marketwired] Press Release

Cedars-Sinai Clinical Trial Studies Vaccine Targeting Cancer Stem Cells in Brain Cancers
An early-phase clinical trial of an experimental vaccine that targets cancer stem cells in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme, the most common and aggressive malignant brain tumor, has been launched by researchers at Cedars-Sinai’s Department of Neurosurgery, Johnnie L. Cochran, Jr. Brain Tumor Center and Department of Neurology. [Cedars-Sinai] Press Release

Minister Sherlock Opens Ireland’s First Human Use Stem Cell Manufacturing Facility at NUI Galway
The Centre for Cell Manufacturing Ireland at NUI Galway is the first ever facility on the island of Ireland to receive a license from the Irish Medicines Board to manufacture culture-expanded stem cells for human use. [National University of Ireland, Galway] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Harvard Medical School)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – RNA Metabolism in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (Institut du Cerveau et de la Moelle épinière)

Postdoctoral Position – Neural Stem Cells and Non-Coding RNAs (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Electrophysiological Properties of Human Stem-Cell Derived Neurons (University of Szeged)

Postdoctoral Position – Functions and Signaling Mechanisms of Neuronal Growth Factors (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Ischemic Stroke Research (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimaging (BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center)

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