Volume 8.02 | Jan 22

Neural Cell News 8.02 January 22, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Age No Obstacle to Nerve Cell Regeneration, Researchers Find
Researchers identified two genetic pathways that regulate insulin activity and are responsible for age-related declines in a worm’s ability to regenerate neuronal axons, or connective branches. The team pinpointed two other pathways that also regulate a neuron’s ability to regenerate, but that have no connection to the age of the worm. [Press release from Yale University discussing online prepublication in Neuron] Press Release | Abstract
Efficiently Expand hPSC-Derived NPCs Without Loss of Multipotency: STEMdiff™ Neural Progenitor Medium
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
An O2-Sensitive Glomus Cell-Stem Cell Synapse Induces Carotid Body Growth in Chronic Hypoxia
Researchers showed that hypoxia does not affect carotid body (CB) neural stem cell proliferation directly. Rather, mature glomus cells expressing endothelin-1, the O2-sensing elements in the CB that secrete neurotransmitters in response to hypoxia, establish abundant synaptic-like contacts with stem cells, which express endothelin receptors, and instruct their growth. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Enhancing Nucleotide Metabolism Protects against Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Neurodegeneration in a PINK1 Model of Parkinson’s Disease
The authors showed that global analysis of transcriptional changes in Drosophila pink1 mutants reveals an upregulation of genes involved in nucleotide metabolism, critical for neuronal mitochondrial DNA synthesis. The researchers demonstrated that genetic enhancement of the nucleotide salvage pathway in neurons of pink1 mutant flies rescues mitochondrial impairment. [Nat Cell Biol] Abstract

Tbr1 Haploinsufficiency Impairs Amygdalar Axonal Projections and Results in Cognitive Abnormality
Disruptive mutations in the transcription factor T-box brain 1 (TBR1) gene have been repeatedly identified in patients with autism spectrum disorders. Researchers showed that Tbr1 haploinsufficiency results in defective axonal projections of amygdalar neurons and the impairment of social interaction, ultrasonic vocalization, associative memory and cognitive flexibility in mice. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Dynamics of Axonal Regeneration in Adult and Aging Zebrafish Reveal the Promoting Effect of a First Lesion
Scientists showed that the posterior lateral line of zebrafish is a suitable system to study axonal regeneration in vivo because of both the superficial location and reproducible spatial arrangement of neurons and targets, and the possibility of following reinnervation in live fish on a daily basis. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

NogoR1 and PirB Signaling Stimulates Neural Stem Cell Survival and Proliferation
Investigators showed that NogoA receptors, NogoR1 and PirB, are expressed in the ventricular zone where neural stem cells (NSCs) reside between E10.5-14.5 but not at E15.5. Nogo ligands stimulate NSC survival and proliferation in a dosage dependent manner in vitro. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Biomaterial Microenvironments to Support the Generation of New Neurons in the Adult Brain
Researchers demonstrated for the first time de novo neurogenesis in both the cortex and striatum of adult rodents stimulated solely by delivery of synthetic biomaterial forms of proteins naturally found within adult neurogenic niches, offering the potential to replace neurons lost in neurodegenerative disease or injury as an alternative to cell implantation. [Stem Cells] Abstract

The Role of SDF-1α-ECM Crosstalk in Determining Neural Stem Cell Fate
The authors investigated the effect of stromal cell-derived factor 1α (SDF-1α) and extracellular matrix (ECM) substrates (Matrigel, laminin, and vitronectin) on the migration, differentiation, and proliferation of neural progenitor/stem cells in vitro using standard assays. [Biomaterials] Abstract

Subcellular Expression and Neuroprotective Effects of SK Channels in Human Dopaminergic Neurons
Investigators tested the therapeutic potential of SK channel activation of NS309 (25 μM) in cultured human postmitotic dopaminergic neurons in vitro conditionally immortalized and differentiated from human fetal mesencephalic cells. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Proliferation and Cilia Dynamics in Neural Stem Cells Prospectively Isolated from the SEZ
Researchers describe the isolation of highly purified genetically unaltered neural stem cells (NSCs) and transit-amplifying precursors from the adult subependymal zone (SEZ). Using this approach they showed that a primary cilium and high levels of epidermal growth factor receptor at the cell membrane characterize quiescent and cycling NSCs, respectively. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Regulation of Chandelier Cell Cartridge and Bouton Development via DOCK7-Mediated ErbB4 Activation
By employing an in utero electroporation-based method that enables genetic labeling and manipulation of chandelier cells (ChCs) in vivo, investigators identified DOCK7, a member of the DOCK180 family, as a molecule essential for ChC cartridge and bouton development. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

NeuroCult™ for Brain Tumor Research - View Publications
Stem Cell Therapies for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Recent Advances and Prospects for the Future
The authors review the types of stem cells being considered for therapeutic applications in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and emphasize recent preclinical advances that provide supportive rationale for clinical translation. [Stem Cells] Abstract | Full Article

Wnt Signaling in Midbrain Dopaminergic Neuron Development and Regenerative Medicine for Parkinson’s Disease
This review focuses on new advances in understanding key functions of Wnts in midbrain dopaminergic neuron development and using novel tools to regulate Wnt signaling in regenerative medicine for Parkinson’s disease. [J Mol Cell Biol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
Innovative Cedars-Sinai Researcher Receives Prestigious National Academy of Sciences Award
Ueli Rutishauser, PhD, assistant professor of neurosurgery and director of human neurophysiology research in the Department of Neurosurgery and the Department of Neurology at Cedars-Sinai, will receive a 2014 Troland Research Award at the National Academy of Sciences annual meeting. [Cedars-Sinai] Press Release

The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology and STEMCELL Technologies Sign Agreement on the Manufacturing of Cell Culture Media for Organoids
The HUB Foundation for Organoid Technology announced that it has signed a licensing agreement with STEMCELL Technologies Inc. for the manufacturing and worldwide distribution of cell culture media for growing Organoids. Organoids are mini-organs grown in tissue culture from small pieces of tissue derived from patients with cancer and other diseases, and represent an exciting new tool for scientific research and drug discovery and validation. [STEMCELL Technologies Inc.] Press Release

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NEW Annual Conference of the American Society for Neural Therapy and Repair
April 24-26, 2014
Clearwater Beach, United States

NEW Translational CNS Summit 2014
April 29-30, 2014
Boston, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neural Stem Cells and Non-Coding RNAs (Lund University)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Electrophysiological Properties of Human Stem-Cell Derived Neurons (University of Szeged)

Postdoctoral Position – Functions and Signaling Mechanisms of Neuronal Growth Factors (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Ischemic Stroke Research (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Position – Derivation of Oligodendrocytes from Human Parkinson’s Disease Specific iPSCs (University of Luxembourg)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Chief Medical Officer – Novel Therapeutics in Oncology and Autoimmune Disease (Immunomedics, Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimaging (BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center)

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