Volume 8.01 | Jan 15

Neural Cell News 8.01 January 15, 2014
Neural Cell News
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Researchers Uncover Secrets of Newborn Neurons
A new form of cell sub-division that is key to the development of the nervous system has been identified by researchers. They have now identified a new process, apical abscission, which mediates the detachment of new-born neurons from the neural tube ventricle – freeing these cells to migrate. [Press release from the University of Dundee discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster 'Neural Stem Cells' Awaits
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Epidermal Cells Are the Primary Phagocytes in the Fragmentation and Clearance of Degenerating Dendrites in Drosophila
Scientists showed that in both dendrite pruning and dendrite injury of Drosophila sensory neurons, epidermal cells rather than hemocytes are the primary phagocytes in clearing degenerating dendrites. [Neuron] Abstract

Ultra-Rapid Axon-Axon Ephaptic Inhibition of Cerebellar Purkinje Cells by the Pinceau
The axon initial segment of each Purkinje cell is ensheathed by basket cell axons in a structure called the pinceau, which is largely devoid of chemical synapses. In mice, researchers found at the single-cell level that the pinceau mediates ephaptic inhibition of Purkinje cell firing at the site of spike initiation. The reduction of firing rate was synchronous with the presynaptic action potential, eliminating a synaptic delay and allowing granule cells to inhibit Purkinje cells without a preceding phase of excitation. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

The miR-17/106-p38 Axis Is a Key Regulator of the Neurogenic-to-Gliogenic Transition in Developing Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells
Results demonstrate that the microRNA (miR)-17/106-p38 axis is a key regulator of the neurogenic-to-gliogenic neural stem/progenitor cell (NSPC) competence transition and that manipulation of this axis permits bidirectional control of NSPC multipotency. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release

ATF3 Expression Improves Motor Function in the ALS Mouse Model by Promoting Motor Neuron Survival and Retaining Muscle Innervation
The authors reveal that forced expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3) in motor neurons of transgenic SOD1G93A ALS mice delays neuromuscular junction denervation by inducing axonal sprouting and enhancing motor neuron viability. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

The Evolutionary Young miR-1290 Favors Mitotic Exit and Differentiation of Human Neural Progenitors through Altering the Cell Cycle Proteins
Investigators identify and report the novel expression and functions of a human and higher primate-specific microRNA, miR-1290, in neurons. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Bifurcation of Axons from Cranial Sensory Neurons Is Disabled in the Absence of Natriuretic Peptide Receptor 2-Induced cGMP Signaling
Findings indicate that in neurons of the cranial sensory ganglia, as in dorsal root ganglion neurons, cGMP signals are necessary for the execution of an axonal bifurcation program. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Efficient Generation of Neural Stem Cell-Like Cells from Rat Adipose Derived Stem Cells after Lentiviral Transduction with Green Fluorescent Protein
Results demonstrate that adipose-derived stem cells can be induced to generate neurospheres that have neural stem cell-like properties and may thus constitute a potential source of cells in stem cell therapy for neurological disorders. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

IGF-II and IGF-II Analogs with Enhanced Insulin Receptor-A Binding Affinity Promote Neural Stem Cell Expansion
Investigators employed genetically engineered IGF-II analogs to establish which receptor(s) mediate the stemness promoting actions of IGF-II on mouse subventricular zone neural precursors. [J Biol Chem]
Abstract | Full Article

Characterization and Molecular Profiling of PSEN1 Familial Alzheimer’s Disease iPSC-Derived Neural Progenitors
Presenilin 1 (PSEN1) encodes the catalytic subunit of γ-secretase, and PSEN1 mutations are the most common cause of early onset familial Alzheimer’s disease (FAD). In order to elucidate pathways downstream of PSEN1, researchers characterized neural progenitor cells derived from FAD mutant PSEN1 subjects. [PLoS One] Abstract | Press Release

Dendrite Injury Triggers DLK-Independent Regeneration
Researchers found that neurons respond to dendrite damage and initiate regeneration without using the conserved dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) cascade that triggers axon regeneration. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
Interneuron Cell Types Are Fit to Function
Interneuron complexity within the telencephalon could be simplified by viewing them as elaborations of a much more finite group of developmentally specified cardinal classes that become further specialized as they mature. This perspective emphasizes that the ultimate goal is to dispense with classification criteria and directly define interneuron types by function. [Nature] Abstract

Müller Glia: Stem Cells for Generation and Regeneration of Retinal Neurons in Teleost Fish
Understanding the specific properties of fish Müller glia that facilitate their robust capacity to generate retinal neurons will inform and inspire new clinical approaches for treating blindness and visual loss with regenerative medicine. [Prog Retin Eye Res] Full Article

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StemCells, Inc. Expands Phase I/II Spinal Cord Injury Trial to North America
StemCells, Inc. announced that a team at the University of Calgary successfully transplanted its first subject in the Company’s Phase I/II clinical trial in chronic spinal cord injury, with the Company’s proprietary HuCNS-SC® human neural stem cells. The ninth subject to enroll in the trial is the first spinal cord injury patient to have undergone transplantation in North America. [StemCells, Inc.] Press Release

First Patient Treated in Neuralstem China Stem Cell Trial to Treat Stroke Motor Deficits
Neuralstem, Inc. announced that the first patient was treated in the Phase I/II NSI-566 stem cell trial to treat motor deficits from ischemic stroke at BaYi Brain Hospital in Beijing, China. [Neuralstem, Inc.] Press Release

Pitt Establishes Brain Institute to Unlock Mysteries of the Brain, Discover Novel Therapies
The University of Pittsburgh is creating a new Institute that aims to unlock the mysteries of normal and abnormal brain function, and then use this new information to develop novel treatments and cures for brain disorders. The goal is to enable investigators to perform high-risk, high-impact neuroscience that will transform lives. [University of Pittsburgh] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Biology (Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Medical Sciences)

Postdoctoral Research Position – Electrophysiological Properties of Human Stem-Cell Derived Neurons (University of Szeged)

Postdoctoral Position – Functions and Signaling Mechanisms of Neuronal Growth Factors (Karolinska Institute)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroscience/Ischemic Stroke Research (Tulane University)

Postdoctoral Position – Derivation of Oligodendrocytes from Human Parkinson’s Disease Specific iPSCs (University of Luxembourg)

Clinical MD – Clinical Development Program for Oncology and Autoimmune Diseases (Immunomedics, Inc.)

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Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimaging (BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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