Volume 7.49 | Dec 11

Neural Cell News 7.49 December 11, 2013
Neural Cell News
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MicroRNA-128 Governs Neuronal Excitability and Motor Behavior in Mice
Investigators report that microRNA-128 governs motor activity by suppressing the expression of various ion channels and signaling components of the extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK2 network that regulate neuronal excitability. [Science] Abstract
Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
PKM2 Regulates Chromosome Segregation and Mitosis Progression of Tumor Cells
The authors showed that tumor-specific pyruvate kinase (PK) M2, but not PKM1, binds to the spindle checkpoint protein Bub3 during mitosis and phosphorylates Bub3 at Y207. This phosphorylation is required for Bub3-Bub1 complex recruitment to kinetochores, where it interacts with Blinkin and is essential for correct kinetochore-microtubule attachment, mitotic/spindle-assembly checkpoint, accurate chromosome segregation, cell survival and proliferation, and active epidermal growth factor receptor-induced brain tumorigenesis. [Mol Cell] Abstract | Press Release

Therapeutic Activation of Macrophages and Microglia to Suppress Brain Tumor-Initiating Cells
Investigators found that microglia derived from non-glioma human subjects markedly mitigated the sphere-forming capacity of glioma patient-derived brain tumor-initiating cells in culture by inducing the expression of genes that control cell cycle arrest and differentiation. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

MOZ-Mediated Repression of p16INK4a Is Critical for the Self-Renewal of Neural and Hematopoietic Stem Cells
Researchers showed that the histone acetyltransferase MOZ controls the proliferation of both hematopoietic and neural stem cells by modulating the transcriptional repression of p16INK4a. [Stem Cells] Abstract

Recruited Brain Tumor-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Contribute to Brain Tumor Progression
Researchers report the infiltration of mesenchymal stem cell (MSC)-like cells into the GL261 murine glioma model. They showed that the infiltration of brain-tumor (BT) derived MSCs correlates to tumor progression; furthermore, BT-MSCs increased the proliferation rate of GL261 cells in vitro. [Stem Cells] Abstract

MGARP Regulates Mouse Neocortical Development via Mitochondrial Positioning
Neocortical development is an extremely complicated process that critically depends on the proper migration, distribution, and positioning of neural cells. Researchers identified mitochondria-localized glutamic acid-rich protein (MGARP) as a negative regulator of neocortical development. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Transplantation of Neural Stem Cells that Overexpress SOD1 Enhances Amelioration of Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Mice
Researchers investigated whether genetic manipulation to overexpress copper/zinc-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) enhances survival of grafted neural stem cells and accelerates amelioration of intracerebral hemorrhage. [J Cereb Blood Flow Metab] Abstract

Glycolysis and Oxidative Phosphorylation in Neurons and Astrocytes During Network Activity in Hippocampal Slices
Using simultaneous measurements of electrophysiological and metabolic parameters during synaptic stimulation in hippocampal slices from mature mice, researchers showed that neurons and astrocytes use both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation to meet their energy demands. [J Cereb Blood Flow Metab] Abstract

Selective Vulnerability of Spinal and Cortical Motor Neuron Subpopulations in delta7 SMA Mice
The authors investigated, using stereological quantification methods, the spinal cord and cerebral motor cortex of delta7 spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) mice during development, to verify extent and selectivity of motor neuron loss. [PLoS One] Full Article

Effects of Heat Shock on Survival, Proliferation and Differentiation of Mouse Neural Stem Cells
Researchers examined the effects of heat shock on homogeneous proliferating neural stem cells (NSCs) derived from mouse embryonic stem cells. After heat shock at 42°C for 20 minutes, the proliferating NSCs continued to proliferate, although subtle changes were observed in gene expression and cell survival and proliferation. [Neurosci Res] Abstract

1-Methyl-4-Phenylpyridinium-Induced Cell Death via Autophagy Through a Bcl-2/Beclin 1 Complex-Dependent Pathway
The authors hypothesized that the 1-methyl-4-phenylpyridinium (MPP+) toxicity generally associated with initiating the apoptotic signaling cascade also increases an autophagic phenotype in neuronal cells. Using the SK-N-SH dopaminergic cell lines, they demonstrated that MPP+ increases the expression of microtubule-associated protein light chain 3, an autophagosome membrane marker and the mTOR signaling pathway, and Beclin 1 while decreasing the Bcl-2 levels. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster
Neural Stem Cell Therapies for Enteric Nervous System Disorders
The authors discuss enteric neuropathies that might be targets for stem cell therapies and the barriers that could limit treatment application. [Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol] Abstract

Human Stem Cell Models of Neurodegeneration: A Novel Approach to Study Mechanisms of Disease Development
The authors provide an overview of human stem cell models of neurodegeneration using induced pluripotent stem cells from patients with Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Huntington’s disease, spinal muscular atrophy and other neurodegenerative diseases. [Acta Neuropathol] Abstract

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AstraZeneca and Lieber Institute for Brain Development Announce Neuroscience Collaboration
AstraZeneca announced that it has entered into a two-year research collaboration with the Lieber Institute for Brain Development to use genetics and stem cell biology to discover new drugs for neuropsychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders such as autism and schizophrenia. [Lieber Institute for Brain Development]
Press Release

DioGenix Raises $3.2 Million for Novel Molecular Diagnostic for Multiple Sclerosis, MSPrecise
DioGenix, Inc. announced that it raised $3.2 million in a private financing consisting of new individual investors and returning investors including life sciences fund Nerveda, LLC. The financing follows recent interim results from a prospective clinical trial of DioGenix’ MSPrecise®, a next-generation sequencing assay, which continues to show that it can accurately identify patients with multiple sclerosis at first clinical presentation. [DioGenix, Inc.] Press Release

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