Volume 7.47 | Nov 27

Neural Cell News 7.47 November 27, 2013
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Astrocytes Mediate Synapse Elimination Through MEGF10 and MERTK Pathways
Microglial cells have been shown to be responsible for a portion of synaptic pruning, but the remaining mechanisms remain unknown. The authors report a new role for astrocytes in actively engulfing central nervous system synapses. [Nature] Abstract | Press Release
Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Isogenic Human iPSC Parkinson’s Model Shows Nitrosative Stress-Induced Dysfunction in MEF2-PGC1α Transcription
Using a robust, patient-derived stem cell model of parkinson’s disease allowing comparison of A53T α-synuclein (α-syn) mutant cells and isogenic mutation-corrected controls, researchers identified mitochondrial toxin-induced perturbations in A53T α-syn A9 DA neurons. [Cell] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

Sleep Spindles Are Generated in the Absence of T-Type Calcium Channel-Mediated Low-Threshold Burst Firing of Thalamocortical Neurons
The theory that low-threshold burst firing mediated by T-type calcium channels in thalamocortical neurons is the key component for sleep spindles, has been accepted as dogma and appears throughout the literature. In this study, however, in vivo and in vitro evidence showed that sleep spindles are generated normally in the absence of T-type channels and burst firing in thalamocortical neurons. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Prolyl Isomerase Pin1 and Protein Kinase HIPK2 Cooperate to Promote Cortical Neurogenesis by Suppressing Groucho/TLE:Hes1-Mediated Inhibition of Neuronal Differentiation
Researchers showed that prolyl isomerase peptidyl-prolyl cis-trans isomerase NIMA-interacting 1 (Pin1) and homeodomain-interacting protein kinase 2 (HIPK2) are expressed in cortical neural progenitor cells and form a complex that interacts with the Gro/TLE1:Hes1 complex. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Schwann Cells But Not Olfactory Ensheathing Cells Inhibit CNS Myelination via the Secretion of Connective Tissue Growth Factor
Using central nervous system (CNS) mixed myelinating rat cultures plated on to a monolayer of astrocytes, researchers demonstrated that Schwann cells, but not olfactory ensheathing cells, secrete a heat labile factor(s) that inhibits oligodendrocyte myelination. [J Neurosci] Abstract

A Bi-Modal Function of Wnt Signaling Directs an FGF Activity Gradient to Spatially Regulate Neuronal Differentiation in the Midbrain
Scientists employed a combination of genetic and pharmacological manipulations in zebrafish to show that during neurogenesis fibroblast growth factor (FGF) activity occurs as a gradient along the anterior-posterior axis of the dorsal midbrain and directs spatially dynamic expression of the Hairy gene her5. [Development] Abstract

Amyloid-β1-42 Oligomer Accelerates Senescence in Adult Hippocampal Neural Stem/Progenitor Cells via Formylpeptide Receptor 2
Investigators showed that amyloid-β1-42 (Aβ42) oligomer triggers senescent phenotype of neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) in vitro. Oligomerized Aβ42 induced the production of senescence-associated biomarkers p16 and senescence-associated β-galactosidase in adult mouse hippocampal NSPCs, as well as inhibited cells proliferation and differentiation.[Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Fast Targeted Gene Transfection and Optogenetic Modification of Single Neurons Using Femtosecond Laser Irradiation
A prevailing problem in neuroscience is the fast and targeted delivery of DNA into selected neurons. The development of an appropriate methodology would enable the transfection of multiple genes into the same cell or different genes into different neighboring cells as well as rapid cell selective functionalization of neurons. The authors showed that optimized femtosecond optical transfection fulfills these requirements. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Neuroimmmune Interactions of Cannabinoids in Neurogenesis: Focus on Interleukin-1β Signaling
The authors investigated the role of CB1 and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the control of neural stem cell (NSC) proliferation and in the release of immunomodulators [IL-1β and IL-1Ra (IL-1 receptor antagonist)] that control NSC fate decisions. [Biochem Soc Trans] Abstract

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
 
REVIEWS
Neurogenic Neuroinflammation: Inflammatory CNS Reactions in Response to Neuronal Activity
The authors review emerging evidence suggesting that neuronal activity may also be sufficient to trigger the concerted actions of immune cells, vascular cells and neurons within the central nervous system (CNS) in a manner that resembles other forms of neuroinflammation. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
 
SCIENCE NEWS
DelMar Pharmaceuticals Presents Interim Phase I/II Clinical Data for VAL-083 in Glioblastoma at Society for Neuro-Oncology Annual Meeting
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the presentation of interim data from a phase I/II clinical trial for VAL-083 in recurrent glioblastoma. Twenty five percent of patients evaluated in Cohorts 1-3 exhibited stable disease or tumor-regression and improved disease symptoms. [Press Release from DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. discussing data presented at the 4th Quadrennial Meeting of the World Federation of Neuro-Oncology, San Francisco] Press Release

From our sponsor: Free wallchart from Nature Neuroscience – Neural Stem Cells. Request your copy.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
New £20M Center Pioneers First-in-Human Trials for Neurodegenerative Diseases
A specialist £20 million research center, funded by the Wolfson Foundation and dedicated to carrying out first-in-human studies, opened in London. Researchers at the Leonard Wolfson Experimental Neurology Centre will investigate exciting new therapies for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s. [University College London] Press Release

VBL Therapeutics Receives FDA Fast Track Designation for Lead Compound VB-111
VBL Therapeutics announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has granted Fast Track designation to its lead oncology drug VB-111, for prolongation of survival in patients with recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. [VBL Therapeutics] Press Release
 
POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW Alzheimer’s Research UK Conference 2014
March 25-26, 2014
Oxford, United Kingdom

NEW 8th International Symposium on Neuroprotection Neurorepair 2014
April 9-12, 2014
Magdeburg, Germany

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW PhD Studentship – Regulation of Stem Cells in the Adult Hypothalamus by Fibroblast Growth Factor Signaling (University of East Anglia)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – 3D Scaffolds Hosting Neural Stem Cells (FORTH)

Research Associate – Neurophysiology of Down’s Syndrome (University College London)

Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimaging (BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center)

PhD Studentship – Genetic Susceptibility to Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases (University of Antwerp)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Harvard Medical School)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)


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