Volume 7.46 | Nov 20

Neural Cell News 7.46 November 20, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Synaptotagmin-1 and Synaptotagmin-7 Trigger Synchronous and Asynchronous Phases of Neurotransmitter Release
Researchers showed using single-cell PCR that individual hippocampal neurons abundantly coexpress two Ca2+-binding synaptotagmin isoforms, synaptotagmin-1 and synaptotagmin-7. In synaptotagmin-1-deficient synapses of excitatory and inhibitory neurons, loss of function of synaptotagmin-7 suppressed asynchronous release. [Neuron] Abstract
Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Auto-Attraction of Neural Precursors and Their Neuronal Progeny Impairs Neuronal Migration
Scientists found that one important mechanism underlying this phenomenon is an intrinsic chemotactic interaction between the grafted neural precursor cells (NPCs) and their neuronal progeny. NPCs secrete the receptor tyrosine kinase ligands FGF2 and VEGF, which act as chemoattractants for neurons. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

miR-219 Regulates Neural Precursor Differentiation by Direct Inhibition of Apical Par Polarity Proteins
Scientists tested a hypothesis that microRNA miR-219 promotes precursor differentiation by inhibiting Par proteins. Neural precursors in zebrafish larvae lacking miR-219 function retained apical proteins, remained in the cell cycle, and failed to differentiate. [Dev Cell] Abstract

Chondroitin Sulphate N-Acetylgalactosaminyl-Transferase-1 Inhibits Recovery from Neural Injury
Scientists showed that mice carrying a gene knockout for chondroitin sulphate (CS) N-acetylgalactosaminyltransferase-1 (T1), a key enzyme in CS biosynthesis, recover more completely from spinal cord injury than wild-type mice and even chondroitinase ABC-treated mice. Notably, synthesis of heparan sulphate (HS), a glycosaminoglycan promoting axonal growth, is also upregulated in TI knockout mice because HS-synthesis enzymes are induced in the mutant neurons. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Spike Timing-Dependent Selective Strengthening of Single Climbing Fibre Inputs to Purkinje Cells during Cerebellar Development
Researchers investigated developmental changes in climbing fibre (CF)-mediated responses in Purkinje cells (PCs) by using in vivo whole-cell recordings and two-photon Ca2+ imaging. They showed that each neonatal PC receives temporally clustered inputs from multiple CFs and temporal integration of these inputs is required to induce burst spiking and Ca2+ rise in PCs. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Transcriptome Sequencing during Mouse Brain Development Identifies Long Non-Coding RNAs Functionally Involved in Neurogenic Commitment
Investigators generated a combinatorial, fluorescent reporter mouse line to isolate proliferating neural stem cells, differentiating progenitors and newborn neurons that coexist as intermingled cell populations during brain development. [EMBO J] Abstract

Neurotrophin 3 Transduction Augments Remyelinating and Immunomodulatory Capacity of Neural Stem Cells
Investigators transduced bone marrow-derived neural stem cells (BM-NSCs) with neurotrophin 3 (NT-3), a potent neurotrophic factor that is both neuroprotective and immunomodulatory. They found that BM-NSCs transduced with NT-3 reduced central nervous system inflammation and neurological deficits in ongoing experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis significantly more than conventional neural stem cell therapy. [Mol Ther] Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency Virus-1 Tat Protein Increases the Number of Inhibitory Synapses between Hippocampal Neurons in Culture
Researchers compared the effects of transactivator of transcription (Tat) on inhibitory and excitatory synaptic connections between rat hippocampal neurons using an imaging-based assay that quantified clusters of the scaffolding proteins gephyrin or PSD95 fused to GFP. Tat increased the number of GFP-gephyrin puncta and decreased the number of PSD95-GFP puncta. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Honokiol Inhibits U87MG Human Glioblastoma Cell Invasion through Endothelial Cells by Regulating Membrane Permeability and the Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition
Researchers investigated the effect of honokiol on the cell invasion process of U87MG human glioblastoma cells through brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) and its possible mechanisms. Honokiol dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α-induced VCAM-1 expression in BMECs and adhesion of U87MG to BMECs. [Int J Oncol] Abstract

Amyloid-β Oligomers Regulate the Properties of Human Neural Stem Cells through GSK-3β Signaling
To investigate the effects of amyloid-β oligomers on human neural stem cells, scientists established amyloid precursor protein Swedish mutant-expressing cells and identified cell-derived amyloid-β oligomers in the culture media. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

Contralaterally Transplanted Human Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Precursor Cells (ENStem-A) Migrate and Improve Brain Functions in Stroke-Damaged Rats
Researchers investigated the fates of ENStem-A for eight weeks following transplantation into the side contralateral to the infarct region using 7.0T animal magnetic resonance imaging. [Exp Mol Med] Full Article

An Acute Glutamate Exposure Induces Long-Term Down Regulation of GLAST/EAAT1 Uptake Activity in Cultured Bergmann Glia Cells
In the cerebellar cortex, glutamate/aspartate transporter (GLAST) is profusely expressed in Bergmann glia cells, which completely enwrap the parallel fiber-Purkinje cells synapses. Glutamate exposure in these cells, down regulates the activity as well as the expression levels of this transporter. In order to characterize the persistence of a single glutamate exposure, scientists followed the [3H]-d-aspartate uptake activity as a function of time after the removal of the glutamatergic stimulus. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Your Free Copy of the Nature Neuroscience Poster
Temporal Fate Specification and Neural Progenitor Competence during Development
Emerging evidence indicates that neural progenitors undergo changes in global chromatin architecture, thereby restricting when a particular cell type can be generated. Studies of temporal-identity specification and progenitor competence can provide insight into how scientists could use neural progenitors to more effectively generate specific cell types for brain repair. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Induced Neural Stem Cells: Methods of Reprogramming and Potential Therapeutic Applications
This review focuses on reported reprogramming techniques and innovative techniques that can be further explored in the neurological field, as well as on the criteria for the phenotypic characterization of induced neural stem cells and their use in developing novel therapeutic strategies for neurological diseases. [Prog Neurobiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
Sangamo BioSciences Announces Presentation of Clinical Data from Alzheimer’s Disease Program
Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. announced the presentation of positive data from the Phase I clinical trial of CERE-110, a gene therapy approach designed to deliver nerve growth factor for the treatment of Alzheimer’s disease. [Press release from Sangamo BioSciences, Inc. discussing research presented at the Sixth Clinical Trials on Alzheimer’s Disease Meeting, San Diego] Press Release

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CytRx Initiates Phase II Clinical Trial with Aldoxorubicin in Patients with Unresectable Glioblastoma Multiforme
CytRx Corporation announced initiation of a Phase II clinical trial with the Company’s aldoxorubicin for the treatment of unresectable glioblastoma multiforme, a deadly form of brain cancer. [CytRx Corporation]
Press Release

Project A.L.S. Announces Research Effort with Lilly
Project A.L.S. announced an agreement with Eli Lilly and Company aimed at helping to accelerate the development of potential therapies for the neurodegenerative disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as Lou Gehrig’s disease. [Project ALS] Press Release

£1.1M for Study into How Acetylcholine Influences Brain Network Activity
A £1.1 million grant to understand how one of the brain’s key neurotransmitters called acetylcholine influences brain activity has been awarded to University of Bristol researchers. The Wellcome Trust award will help scientists understand more precisely how the release of acetylcholine is changing brain cell activity to influence memory and cognition. [EurekAlert!] Press Release
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NEW ISREC Symposium 2014: Metastatic Colonization
January 22-25, 2014
Crans Montana, Switzerland

NEW Keystone Symposia: Stem Cells and Cancer
February 2-7, 2014
Banff, Canada

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NEW PhD Position – Neural Stem Cells (Institute of Molecular Biology)

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PhD Studentship – Genetic Susceptibility to Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases (University of Antwerp)

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