Volume 7.45 | Nov 13

Neural Cell News 7.45 November 13, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Injury-Induced HDAC5 Nuclear Export Is Essential for Axon Regeneration
Scientists found that axon injury in peripheral sensory neurons elicits a back-propagating calcium wave that invades the soma and causes nuclear export of histone deacetylase 5 (HDAC5) in a PKCμ-dependent manner. [Cell] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract
Take the "if" out of "diff": Reduce variability when differentiating to neural progenitors
PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
The Activity-Dependent Transcription Factor NPAS4 Regulates Domain-Specific Inhibition
The authors showed that in the mouse hippocampus behaviorally driven expression of NPAS4 coordinates the redistribution of inhibitory synapses made onto a CA1 pyramidal neuron, simultaneously increasing inhibitory synapse number on the cell body while decreasing the number of inhibitory synapses on the apical dendrites. [Nature] Abstract

Parvalbumin Interneurons Mediate Neuronal Circuitry-Neurogenesis Coupling in the Adult Hippocampus
Using immunohistology, electron microscopy, electrophysiology and optogenetics, investigators found that proliferating adult mouse hippocampal neural precursors received immature GABAergic synaptic inputs from parvalbumin-expressing interneurons. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Synaptic NMDA Receptor Stimulation Activates PP1 by Inhibiting Its Phosphorylation by Cdk5
Scientists found that synaptic N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor stimulation in neurons leads to activation of protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) through a mechanism involving inhibitory phosphorylation at Thr320 by Cdk5. [J Cell Biol] Abstract

Interaction of Ganglioside GD3 with an EGF Receptor Sustains the Self-Renewal Ability of Mouse Neural Stem Cells In Vitro
The authors previously demonstrated that GD3 is a predominant ganglioside species (>80% of the total gangliosides) in mouse neural stem cells. To investigate its biological function, they found that GD3 is colocalized and interacts with the mitogen receptor EGFR in the microdomain structure of the plasma membrane. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

A Local Source of FGF Initiates Development of the Unmyelinated Lineage of Sensory Neurons
Investigators report that signals emanating from within the mouse dorsal root ganglion mediated partly by early-born neurons destined to a myelinated phenotype participate in fating late-born RUNX1+/TrkA+ neurons. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Leptin Signaling in GABA Neurons, but Not Glutamate Neurons, Is Required for Reproductive Function
Researchers tested whether GABAergic or glutamatergic neurons provide the intermediate pathway between the site of leptin action and gonadotropin releasing hormone neurons. [J Neurosci] Abstract

A Novel Neuroprotective Strategy for Ischemic Stroke: Transient Mild Acidosis Treatment by CO2 Inhalation at Reperfusion
Researchers report that attenuating brain acidosis with NaHCO3 significantly compromised the acidosis or ischemic postconditioning-induced neuroprotection. Consistently, both acidosis-treated primary cultured cortical neurons and acute corticostriatal slices were more resistant to oxygen-glucose deprivation/reperfusion insult. [J Cereb Blood Flow Metab] Abstract

Chronic Fluoxetine Treatment Reduces Parvalbumin Expression and Perineuronal Nets in Gamma-Aminobutyric Acidergic Interneurons of the Frontal Cortex in Adult Mice
Researchers used immunohistological analysis to assess the effect of fluoxetine treatment on gamma-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons in the medial frontal cortex and reticular thalamic nucleus. [Mol Brain]
Full Article | Press Release

Micromolar Copper Modifies Electrical Properties and Spontaneous Discharges of Dodose Ganglion Neurons In Vitro
Researchers studied the effect of physiological concentration of CuCl2 (μM range) on the activity of peripheral neurons using a preparation of nodose ganglion in vitro. [Biometals] Abstract

Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from an Animal Model of Psychiatric Disease
To investigate the role of resident neural stem cells (NSCs) in a murine model of psychiatric disease, authors sought to isolate and characterize NSCs from alpha-calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous knockout mice, a model of schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. [Transl Psychiatry]
Full Article

Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
Investigating Axonal Guidance with Microdevice-Based Approaches
The authors review microdevices specifically designed to study axonal guidance and compare them with the conventional assays used to probe gradient sensing in cell biology. [J Neurosci] Abstract

A Role for the Neurexin-Neuroligi Complex in Alzheimer’s Disease
This review summarizes the current understanding of the roles of neurexins and neuroligins proteolytic processing in synaptic plasticity in the human brain, and outlines their possible roles in β-amyloid metabolism and function, which are central pathogenic events in Alzheimer’s disease progression. [Neurobiol Aging] Abstract

Modeling Astrocytic Contribution Toward Neurodegeneration with Pluripotent Stem Cells: Focus on Alzheimer’s and Parkinson’s Diseases
The authors review astrocyte heterogeneity and function in the brain. They also focus on the involvement of astrocytes in neurodegenerative diseases including Parkinson’s and Alzheimer’s diseases, discussing the contribution of this type of glial cell toward mechanisms that can lead to neuronal death, which was previously attributed exclusively to neurons. [Neuroreport] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
Mesoblast’s Mesenchymal Precursor Cells Induce Functional Recovery in Ischemic Stroke Model
Regenerative medicine company Mesoblast Limited announced positive preclinical trial results which demonstrated that its proprietary Mesenchymal Precursor Cells (MPCs) could improve functional recovery following a stroke. The trial results showed that a single intravenous injection of human MPCs significantly enhanced sensorimotor recovery when administered up to seven days after an ischemic stroke in rats. [Press release from Mesoblast Limited discussing research presented at Neuroscience 2013, San Diego.]
Press Release

Celldex Therapeutics Announces Publication of Preliminary Data from the Phase II ReACT Study to be Presented at the 18th Annual Scientific Meeting of the Society for Neuro-Oncology
Celldex Therapeutics, Inc. announced that preliminary data from “ReACT: a Phase II Study of Rindopepimut Vaccine (CDX-110) Plus Bevacizumab in Relapsed Glioblastoma”, was published in the 2013 abstract supplement to the journal Neuro-Oncology. [Celldex Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

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GW Pharmaceuticals Commences Phase Ib/IIa Clinical Trial for the Treatment of Glioblastoma Multiforme
GW Pharmaceuticals plc, a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering, developing and commercializing novel therapeutics from its proprietary cannabinoid product platform, announced that it has commenced a Phase Ib/IIa clinical trial for the treatment of recurrent glioblastoma multiforme. [GW Pharmaceuticals plc] Press Release

Revalesio Initiates Phase IIa Study of RNS60 in Multiple Sclerosis at University Hospital Zurich
The open label study will enroll 15 patients and evaluate the use of RNS60 by intravenous administration compared to patient’s pre-treatment disease activity. The main outcome of the study will be the reduction of inflammatory activity in the brain as measured by Gd contrast-enhancing MRI lesions. [Revalesio Corporation] Press Release
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European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
NEW Microglia: Guardians of the Brain
March 26-29, 2014
Heidelberg, Germany

NEW Alzheimer’s Disease in Down Syndrome: From Molecules to Cognition
March 27-29, 2014
Cambridge, United Kingdom

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Research Associate – Neurophysiology of Down’s Syndrome (University College London)

NEW Postdoctoral Position – Neuroimaging (BarcelonaBeta Brain Research Center)

PhD Studentship – Genetic Susceptibility to Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases (University of Antwerp)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell and Neural Cell Biology (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Regenerative Neurology (University of Edinburgh)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Harvard Medical School)

Manufacturing Manager (StemCells Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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