Volume 7.44 | Nov 6

Neural Cell News 7.44 November 6, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Study Finds a Patchwork of Genetic Variation in the Brain
Using single-cell sequencing, researchers have shown that the genomic structures of individual neurons differ from each other even more than expected. [Press release from Salk Institute for Biological Studies discussing online prepublication in Science] Press Release | Abstract
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PUBLICATIONS ( Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Resident Neural Stem Cells Restrict Tissue Damage and Neuronal Loss after Spinal Cord Injury in Mice
Central nervous system injuries are accompanied by scar formation. It has been difficult to delineate the precise role of the scar, as it is made by several different cell types, which may limit the damage but also inhibit axonal regrowth. Scientists showed that scarring by neural stem cell-derived astrocytes is required to restrict secondary enlargement of the lesion and further axonal loss after spinal cord injury. [Science] Abstract | Press Release

Oscillatory Control of Factors Determining Multipotency and Fate in Mouse Neural Progenitors
Investigators used optogenetics to control expression of Ascl1, and found that although sustained Ascl1 expression promotes neuronal fate determination, oscillatory Ascl1 expression maintains proliferating neural progenitor cells. [Science] Abstract

The Mouse C9ORF72 Ortholog Is Enriched in Neurons Known to Degenerate in ALS and FTD
Using transgenic mice harboring a targeted LacZ insertion, researchers studied the expression pattern of the C9ORF72 mouse ortholog. Unlike most genes that are mutated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), which are ubiquitously expressed, the C9ORF72 ortholog was most highly transcribed in the neuronal populations that are sensitive to degeneration in ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Familial Dysautonomia Model Reveals Ikbkap Deletion Causes Apoptosis of Pax3+ Progenitors and Peripheral Neurons
Scientists showed that Ikbkap is not required for trunk neural crest migration or pathfinding, nor for the formation of dorsal root or sympathetic ganglia, or the adrenal medulla. Instead, Ikbkap is essential for the second wave of neurogenesis during which the majority of tropomyosin-related kinase A nociceptors and thermoreceptors arise. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

X-Linked Microtubule-Associated Protein, Mid1, Regulates Axon Development
Scientists provide data from in vitro and in vivo experiments suggesting that silencing midline-1 (Mid1) in developing neurons promotes axon growth and branch formation, resulting in a disruption of callosal axon projections in the contralateral cortex. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract

Titration of GLI3 Repressor Activity by Sonic Hedgehog Signaling Is Critical for Maintaining Multiple Adult Neural Stem Cell and Astrocyte Functions
Researchers found that the majority of slow-cycling neural stem cells (NSCs) express Gli2 and Gli3, whereas Gli1 is restricted ventrally and all three genes are downregulated when NSCs transition into proliferating progenitors. [J Neurosci] Abstract

Excitotoxic Cell Death Induces Delayed Proliferation of Endogenous Neuroprogenitor Cells in Organotypic Slice Cultures of the Rat Spinal Cord
Researchers investigated whether, in the mammalian spinal cord, cell death induced by transient excitotoxic stress could trigger activation and proliferation of endogenous neuroprogenitor cells as a potential source of a lesion repair process and the underlying time course. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Derivation of Neural Stem Cells from an Animal Model of Psychiatric Disease
To investigate the role of resident neural stem cells (NSCs) in a murine model of psychiatric disease, scientists sought to isolate and characterize NSCs from alpha-calcium-/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II heterozygous knockout mice, a model of schizophrenia/bipolar disorder. [Transl Psych] Full Article

High Yields of Oligodendrocyte Lineage Cells from Human Embryonic Stem Cells at Physiological Oxygen Tensions for Evaluation of Translational Biology
Researchers established an efficient system to specify NG2/PDGF-Ra/OLIG2+ oligodendrocyte precursor cells from human embryonic stem cells at low, physiological oxygen levels. This was achieved via both forebrain and spinal cord origins, with up to 98% of cells expressing NG2. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article

A Molecular Mechanism Regulating the Timing of Corticogeniculate Innervation
Scientists identified a chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG) that regulates the timing of corticogeniculate innervation. Aggrecan, a repulsive CSPG, is enriched in neonatal dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus (dLGN) and inhibits cortical axons from prematurely entering the dLGN. [Cell Rep] Full Article | Graphical Abstract

Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
Emerging Novel Roles of Neuropeptide Y in the Retina: From Neuromodulation to Neuroprotection
The authors focus on the roles of Neuropeptide Y (NPY) in the retina, specifically proliferation, neuromodulation and neuroprotection. Alterations in the NPY system in the retina might contribute to the pathogenesis of retinal degenerative diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy and glaucoma, and NPY and its receptors might be viewed as potentially novel therapeutic targets. [Prog Neurobiol] Abstract

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$100 Million Gift Launches Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center
Businessman and philanthropist T. Denny Sanford has committed $100 million to the creation of the Sanford Stem Cell Clinical Center at the University of California, San Diego. [UC San Diego] Press Release

UPMC Expands the Use of Next-Generation Sequencing for Cancer Patients to Guide New Therapies
In a move away from a one-size-fits-most approach to treating cancer, University of Pittsburgh Medical Center (UPMC) and the University of Pittsburgh are significantly expanding capabilities to use next-generation sequencing to provide personalized care for cancer patients. [UPMC] Press Release

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Reps. Fattah and Thompson Introduce House Resolution Recognizing November as National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Month
Congressman Chaka Fattah and Congressman Glenn Thompson introduced a resolution in recognition of November as National Alzheimer’s Disease Awareness Month. Congressman Fattah, architect of the Fattah Neuroscience Initiative, has pushed for increased federal funding to support finding a cure for Alzheimer’s and other brain diseases. [United States House of Representatives] Press Release

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NEW Quantitative Imaging and Analysis in Neurons
11.00 AM ET, November 19, 2013

NEW A Truce in the BAP-tist/Tau-ist War? Progress Toward a Unified Understanding of Alzheimer’s Disease
December 10, 2013
New York, United States

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NEW PhD Studentship – Genetic Susceptibility to Neurodegenerative Brain Diseases (University of Antwerp)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell and Neural Cell Biology (KU Leuven)

Postdoctoral Position – Regenerative Neurology (University of Edinburgh)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neuroscience (Harvard Medical School)

Manufacturing Manager (StemCells Inc.)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Tübingen University)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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