Volume 7.40 | Oct 9

Neural Cell News 7.40 October 9, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Transcriptional Repression of Bmp2 by p21Waf1/Cip1 Links Quiescence to Neural Stem Cell Maintenance
Scientists demonstrated that transcription of the gene encoding bone morphogenetic protein 2 (Bmp2) in neural stem cells (NSCs) is under the direct negative control of p21 through actions that are independent of cyclin-dependent kinase. Loss of p21 in NSCs results in increased levels of secreted BMP2, which induces premature terminal differentiation of multipotent NSCs into mature non-neurogenic astrocytes in an autocrine and/or paracrine manner. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract
Webinar: Brent Reynolds on Identification and Characterization of Neural Stem Cells
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Non-Epithelial Stem Cells and Cortical Interneuron Production in the Human Ganglionic Eminences
Researchers characterized the developing human ganglionic eminences and found that the subventricular zone expanded massively during the early second trimester, becoming densely populated with neural stem cells and intermediate progenitor cells. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Deficits in MicroRNA-Mediated Cxcr4/Cxcl12 Signaling in Neurodevelopmental Deficits in a 22q11 Deletion Syndrome Mouse Model
Researchers showed that a 22q11 deletion syndrome mouse model with a deletion of 18 orthologous genes of human 22q11 has deficits in migration of cortical interneurons and hippocampal dentate precursor cells. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Full Article

Comparative Drug Pair Screening across Multiple Glioblastoma Cell Lines Reveals Novel Drug-Drug Interactions
Researchers aimed to identify identified new synergistic drug pairs for glioblastoma multiforme (GBM). In addition, they aimed to explore differences in drug-drug interactions across multiple GBM-derived cell cultures and predict such differences by use of transcriptional biomarkers. [Neuro Oncol] Abstract

P2X7 Purinoceptors Contribute to the Death of Schwann Cells Transplanted into the Spinal Cord
Researchers showed that rat Schwann cells (SCs) express P2X7 purinoceptors (P2X7R) and exposure of cultured SCs to high concentrations of ATP (3-5 mM) or a P2X7R agonist, 2′(3′)-O-(4-benzoylbenzoyl)ATP induced significant cell death rapidly. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

The Neuroprotective Effect Exerted by Oligodendroglial Progenitors on Ischemically Impaired Hippocampal Cells
Researchers set up an ex vivo co-culture system of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells (OPCs) isolated from neonatal rat brain with organotypic hippocampal slices injured by oxygen-glucose deprivation. The presence of OPCs in such co-cultures resulted in a significant neuroprotective effect manifesting itself as a decrease in cell death rate and as an extension of newly formed cells in ischemically impaired hippocampal slices. [Mol Neurobiol] Full Article

Glutamate Release from Astrocyte Cell-Line GL261 via Alterations in the Intracellular Ion Environment
Recent studies have reported that channelrhodopsin-2 (ChR2) is useful for alteration of intracellular ion environment in several types of cells with blue light exposure. Here, researchers showed that ChR2-expressing GL261 cells, clonal astrocytes, change their properties by photo-activation. [J Neural Transm] Abstract

Claulansine F Promotes Neuritogenesis in PC12 Cells via the ERK Signaling Pathway
Claulansine F (Clau F) significantly increased the percentage of PC12 cells bearing neurites. Clau F markedly increased the expression of GAP-43 in the cells. [Acta Pharmacol Sin] Abstract

Prolonged Cultivation of Hippocampal Neural Precursor Cells Shifts Their Differentiation Potential and Selects for Aneuploid Cells
Assessing their in vitro plasticity, scientists isolated Nestin+/Sox2+, neural precursor cells (NPCs) from the adult murine hippocampus. In vitro-expanded, adult NPCs were able to form neurospheres, self-renew and differentiate into neuronal, astrocytic and oligodendrocytic cells. [Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Thymoquinone Prevents β-Amyloid Neurotoxicity in Primary Cultured Cerebellar Granule Neurons
The neuroprotective properties of thymoquinone were investigated by studying its anti-apoptotic potential to diminish β-amyloid peptide 1-40 sequence-induced neuronal cell death in primary cultured cerebellar granule neurons. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Aβ Secretion and Plaque Formation Depend on Autophagy
To investigate the role of autophagy in amyloid beta (Aβ) pathology in vivo, scientists crossed amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice with mice lacking autophagy in excitatory forebrain neurons obtained by conditional knockout of autophagy-related protein 7. [Cell Rep]
Full Article | Graphical Abstract | Press Release

Culture primary neurons independent of substrate with NeuroCult™ SM2
Molecular Logic of Neocortical Projection Neuron Specification, Development and Diversity
The authors provide an integrative account of the molecular controls that direct the progressive development and delineation of subtype and area identity of neocortical projection neurons. [Nat Rev Neurosci] Abstract

Approaches for Neural Tissue Regeneration
In this review article, various approaches currently investigated to promote neural regeneration are covered. Those include approaches based on (and many times combining) stem cell therapy, scaffolds made of hydrogel, electrospun fibers and conductive materials as well as the use of soluble or non-diffusible growth factors. [Stem Cells Rev] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
ALS Stem Cell Trial Begins at U-M Health System with First Two Patients Receiving Injections
Two patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) have received stem cell injections to their spinal cords at the University of Michigan (U-M) Health System – the first two to receive the experimental injections in Michigan as part of a national clinical trial. [University of Michigan Health System] Press Release

StemCells, Inc. Receives FDA Authorization of IND for Spinal Cord Injury
StemCells, Inc. announced that the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has authorized the Company’s Investigational New Drug (IND) application for clinical testing of the Company’s proprietary HuCNS-SC® human neural stem cells as a treatment for spinal cord injury. [StemCells, Inc.] Press Release

The Michael J. Fox Foundation Launches think/able: Miles for a Cure, a Month-Long Challenge to Raise $50,000 for Parkinson’s Research
The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research has created think/able: Miles for a Cure, calling on the Parkinson’s community to walk, run, or bike a collective 50,000 miles to raise funds for research. [The Michael J. Fox Foundation] Press Release

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Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Fellow Position – Neuroscience (Johns Hopkins University)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Reprogramming, Stem Cells, and Neuroscience (University of Southern California)

Manufacturing Manager (StemCells Inc.)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Brain Cancer (Vanderbilt University Medical Center)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Tübingen University)

Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Stem Cells (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

Postdoctoral Position – Glia and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Interactions (University of Kentucky College)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Neuroscience (University of Utah)

Scientist – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Mesenchymal Cell Research (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Technologist – Cell Culture Media & Matrices (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate/Scientist – Antibodies Group (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Research Associate – Particle Chemistry (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Quality Control Analyst – Media (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

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