Volume 7.36 | Sep 11

Neural Cell News 7.36 September 11, 2013
Neural Cell News
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FoxO3 Coordinates Metabolic Pathways to Maintain Redox Balance in Neural Stem Cells
Scientists demonstrated that among the Forkhead Box O (FoxO)3-regulated genes in neural stem/progenitor cells are a host of enzymes in central carbon metabolism that act to combat reactive oxygen species by directing the flow of glucose and glutamine carbon into defined metabolic pathways. [EMBO J] Abstract
Take the 'if' out of 'diff': Reduce variability when differentiating to neural progenitors
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Potent and Multiple Regulatory Actions of Microglial Glucocorticoid Receptors during CNS Inflammation
In vivo and in vitro data show glucocorticoid receptor (GR) functions in microglial differentiation, proliferation and motility. Interestingly, microglial GR also abolishes the lipopolysaccharide-induced delayed outward rectifier currents by downregulating Kv1.3 expression known to control microglia proliferation and oxygen radical production. [Cell Death Differ] Abstract

Minimally Invasive Transplantation of iPSC-Derived ALDHhiSSCloVLA4+ Neural Stem Cells Effectively Improves the Phenotype of an Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Model
Researchers isolated a specific neural stem cell (NSC) population from human induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) based on high aldehyde dehydrogenase activity, low side scatter, and integrin VLA4 positivity. They assessed the therapeutic effects of these NSCs on the phenotype of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis mice after intrathecal or intravenous injections. [Hum Mol Genet] Abstract

C1q-Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein 8 (CTRP8) Is a Novel Interaction Partner of Relaxin Receptor RXFP1 in Human Brain Cancer Cells
Researchers report a novel ligand-receptor system composed of the leucine-rich G protein coupled relaxin receptor, RXFP1, and the CTRP8 in human primary brain cancer, a tumor entity devoid of the classical RXFP1 ligands, RLN1-3. [J Pathol] Abstract

Development of a Culture System to Induce Microglia-Like Cells from Hematopoietic Cells
Researchers established a culture system to induce microglia-like cells from hematopoietic cells by co-culture with astrocytes. [Neuropathol Appl Neurobiol] Abstract | Full Article

Stepwise, Non-Adherent Differentiation of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells to Generate Basal Forebrain Cholinergic Neurons via Hedgehog Signaling
Scientists demonstrated the efficient production of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons, using a novel embryoid body based non-adherent differentiation protocol. They established a specific basal forebrain neural stem cell phenotype via expression of the basal forebrain transcription factors NKX2.1 and LHX8, as well as the general forebrain marker FOXG1. [Stem Cell Res] Abstract

Collagen Microsphere Serving as a Cell Carrier Supports Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Cell Growth and Differentiation for Neurite Myelination In Vitro
Investigators showed that the viability of oligodendrocyte progenitor cells, B104 cells and PC12 cells grown on microspheres was not significantly different with those in cell culture plates. [Stem Cell Res Ther]
Abstract | Full Article

The Influence of Immunosuppressive Drugs on Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Fate In Vitro
Researchers investigated the effects of different immunotherapeutic strategies on human neural progenitor cell survival/death, proliferation, metabolic activity, differentiation and migration in vitro. [Exp Cell Res] Abstract

Functional Screening Assays with Neurons Generated from Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Neural Stem Cells
Researchers developed an efficient protocol to culture pure populations of neurons, as confirmed by gene expression analysis, in the 96-well format necessary for screens. [J Biomol Screen] Abstract

Selenium Compounds Prevent Amyloid β-Peptide Neurotoxicity in Rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons
Researchers identified the neuroprotective effects of the selenium compounds on the neurotoxicity of amyloid β(1-42) in primary cultures of murine hippocampal neurons. [Neurochem Res] Abstract

Activation of Developmental Nuclear Fibroblast Growth Factor Receptor 1 Signaling and Neurogenesis in Adult Brain by α7 Nicotinic Receptor Agonist
Scientists report that targeting the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors with a specific TC-7020 agonist led to a robust accumulation of endogenous fibroblast growth factor receptor 1 (FGFR1) in the cell nucleus. Nuclear FGFR1 accumulation was accompanied by an inhibition of proliferation of neural stem/progenitor cells in the subventricular zone and by the generation of new neurons. [Stem Cells Transl Med] Abstract

Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
Integration of GABAergic Interneurons into Cortical Cell Assemblies: Lessons from Embryos and Adults
Researchers provide an overview of the mechanisms used by GABAergic interneurons to reach their final position, with an emphasis on the final steps of this process. [Neuron] Abstract | Full Article

Targeting the Neural Extracellular Matrix in Neurological Disorders
This review focuses on the role of the extracellular matrix, chondroitin sulphate proteoglycans and perineuronal nets; and how developmental and pharmacological manipulation of these structures have enhanced neuronal plasticity and aided functional recovery in regeneration, stroke, and amblyopia. [Neuroscience] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.

Stem Cell Society Singapore 2013 Symposium
Rhythm Awarded $1.35 Million from The Michael J. Fox Foundation to Advance Clinical Development of RM-131 for Refractory Constipation in Parkinson’s Disease
Rhythm announced that The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research has awarded a $1.35 million research grant to Rhythm to help fund a Phase II clinical trial of RM-131, the company’s novel ghrelin agonist, for the treatment of refractory constipation in patients with Parkinson’s disease. [Rhythm Pharmaceuticals] Press Release

First Patient Treated in Phase II of Neuralstem ALS Stem Cell Trial
Neuralstem, Inc. announced that the first patient was treated in its Phase II trial using NSI-566 spinal cord-derived neural stem cells in the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) at Emory University Hospital in Atlanta, Georgia. [Neuralstem, Inc.] Press Release

ALS Therapy Development Institute and Anida Pharma Partner to Investigate Potential Treatments for ALS
The ALS Therapy Development Institute announced that it has entered into a research partnership with Anida Pharma, Inc., to investigate a potential treatment for ALS. [ALS Therapy Development Institute]
Press Release

Civitas Therapeutics Initiates Phase IIb Clinical Study of CVT-301, Inhaled L-Dopa for Parkinson’s Disease
Civitas Therapeutics, Inc. announced the initiation of a Phase IIb clinical study of CVT-301, an inhaled formulation of levodopa (L-dopa). [Civitas Therapeutics, Inc.] Press Release

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