Volume 7.35 | Sep 4

Neural Cell News 7.35 September 4, 2013
Neural Cell News
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TOP STORY
Opposite Feedbacks in the Hippo Pathway for Growth Control and Neural Fate
In the Drosophila eye, cross-repression between the Hippo pathway kinase, LATS/Warts, and growth regulator, Melted, generates mutually exclusive photoreceptor subtypes. Here, scientists showed that this all-or-nothing neuronal differentiation results from Hippo pathway positive feedback: YAP/Yorkie both represses its negative regulator, warts, and promotes its positive regulator, melted. [Science] Abstract
Culture Human Glioma-Derived Tumorspheres with NeuroCult™ - View Publications
 
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Mesenchymal Differentiation Mediated by NF-?B Promotes Radiation Resistance in Glioblastoma
Investigators showed that patient-derived glioma sphere cultures that resemble either the proneural or mesenchymal transcriptomal subtypes differ significantly in their biological characteristics. [Cancer Cell] Abstract | Press Release | Graphical Abstract

Act1 Mediates Interleukin 17-Induced EAE Pathogenesis Selectively in NG2+ Glial Cells
Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) disease course was unaffected by deletion of NF-?B activator 1 (Act1) in neurons or mature oligodendrocytes, and Act1 deletion in astrocytes only modestly affected disease course. Deletion of Act1 in NG2+ glia resulted in markedly reduced EAE severity. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Control of Synaptic Vesicle Endocytosis by an Extracellular Signaling Molecule
Researchers showed that brain-derived neurotrophic factor arrests the rephosphorylation of the endocytosis enzyme dynamin I via an inhibition of glycogen synthase kinase 3. [Nat Commun] Full Article

The Regulation of Mitochondrial DNA Copy Number in Glioblastoma Cells
Researchers showed that human neural stem cells increased their mitochondrial DNA content during differentiation in a process that was mediated by a synergistic relationship between the nuclear and mitochondrial genomes and results in increased respiratory capacity. [Cell Death Differ] Full Article

Effects of Sleep and Wake on Oligodendrocytes and Their Precursors
Studies have showed that oligodendrocyte precursor cells (OPCs) are responsible for the formation of new myelin in both the injured and the normal adult brain, and that glutamate released from neurons, via neuron-OPC synapses, can inhibit OPC proliferation and affect their differentiation into myelin-forming oligodendrocytes. Because glutamatergic transmission is higher in wake than in sleep, scientists asked whether sleep and wake can affect oligodendrocytes and OPCs. [J Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Mesenchymal Stromal-Cell Transplants Induce Oligodendrocyte Progenitor Migration and Remyelination in a Chronic Demyelination Model
Researchers analyzed the effect that bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC) grafts exert in a chronically demyelinated mouse brain. As a result, oligodendrocyte progenitors were recruited surrounding the graft due to the expression of various trophic signals by the grafted MSCs. [Cell Death Dis] Full Article

Overexpression of Rho-GDP-Dissociation Inhibitor-? Inhibits Migration of Neural Stem Cells
Scientists investigated the role of Rho-GDP-dissociation inhibitor-? (Rho-GDI?) in neural stem cells migration. Their results indicated that the overexpression of Rho-GDI? maintains neural stem cell (NSCs) in the stem cell state, meanwhile preventing NSC migration through inhibition of Rac1 expression, one of the Rho-family GTPases. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract

Chitosan Oligosaccharides Protect Rat Primary Hippocampal Neurons from Oligomeric ß-Amyloid 1-42-Induced Neurotoxicity
Researchers investigated the effect of chitosan oligosaccharides (COSs) on oligomeric Aß-mediated toxicity in rat primary hippocampal neurons. Pretreatment with COSs markedly inhibited cell death induced by Aß exposure as determined by cell viability assay and lactate dehydrogenase release assay. [Neurosci Lett] Abstract

Genetic Correction of Tauopathy Phenotypes in Neurons Derived from Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells
Scientists report a human neuronal model of tauopathy derived from induced pluripotent stem cells carrying a TAU-A152T mutation. [Stem Cell Rep] Full Article | Press Release

Human Stem Cell-Derived Spinal Cord Astrocytes with Defined Mature or Reactive Phenotypes
Using early neuralization, scientists generated spinal cord astrocytes from mouse or human embryonic or induced pluripotent stem cells with high efficiency. [Cell Rep] Abstract | Graphical Abstract

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REVIEWS
Oligodendroglia Metabolically Support Axons and Maintain Structural Integrity
The authors discuss evidence for the vulnerability of neurons to energy deprivation, the importance of oligodendrocytes for axon function and survival, and recent data suggesting that transfer of energy metabolites from oligodendroglia to axons through monocarboxylate transporter 1 may be critical for the survival of axons. [Trends Cell Biol] Abstract

Receptor Tyrosine Kinase (RTK) Signaling in the Control of Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell (NSPC) Development
Important developmental responses are elicited in neural stem and progenitor cells by activation of the receptor tyrosine kinases, including the fibroblast growth factor receptors, epidermal growth factor receptor, platelet-derived growth factor receptors and insulin-like growth factor receptor. Signaling through these RTK is necessary and sufficient for driving a number of developmental processes in the central nervous system. [Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
 
INDUSTRY NEWS
Neurodyn Inc. Acquires Memogain® for Dementia in Alzheimer’s Disease
Neurodyn Inc. announced that it has acquired from Galantos Pharma GmbH, Mainz, Germany all assets related to their Alzheimer’s prescription drug candidate – Memogain®. [Neurodyn Inc.] Press Release

Apitope Announces Positive Results from Clinical Trial of ATX-MS-1467 in Relapsing Multiple Sclerosis
Apitope announced completion with positive results of its second Phase I clinical trial of ATX-MS-1467. Examination of the MRI results demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of contrast-enhancing brain lesions in patients with relapsing multiple sclerosis treated by intradermal injection of ATX-MS-1467. [Apitope International NV] Press Release

Stem Cell Agency Awards More than $40 Million in New Research Grants
The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine’s governing board, the Independent Citizens Oversight Committee, approved $40 million in funding for researchers at 10 institutions including Stanford, UCLA, UC San Diego, Human BioMolecular Research Institute, Cedars-Sinai Medical Center, The Gladstone Institutes, Sanford-Burnham Medical Research Institute, The Salk Institute, Numerate, Inc. and UC Irvine as part of its Early Translational IV Research awards. [California Institute for Regenerative Medicine] Press Release

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POLICY NEWS
National Institutes of Health (United States)

Food and Drug Administration (United States)

Center for Biologics Evaluation and Research (United States)

European Medicines Agency (European Union)

Medicines and Healthcare Products Regulatory Agency (United Kingdom)

Therapeutic Goods Administration (Australia)
 
EVENTS
NEW 43rd Annual Meeting of the Society for Neuroscience
November 9-13, 2013
San Diego, United States

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
 
JOB OPPORTUNITIES
NEW Postdoctoral Fellowship – Neural Stem Cells (University of Wisconsin – Madison)

NEW Postdoc or Senior Scientist – Neural Differentiation (BioTalentum Ltd.)

Postdoctoral Position – Glia and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Interactions (University of Kentucky College)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Neuroscience (University of Utah)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurosteroids and Neural Stem Cells in Developing Brain (Children’s National Medical Center)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Itch Sensation (Washington University School of Medicine)


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