Volume 7.34 | Aug 28

Neural Cell News 7.34 August 28, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Cerebral Organoids Model Human Brain Development and Microcephaly
Scientists have developed a human pluripotent stem cell-derived three-dimensional organoid culture system, termed cerebral organoids, that develop various discrete, although interdependent, brain regions. [Nature] Abstract
Open Access JoVE Protocol: Discriminating NSCs from NPCs with the NeuroCult™ NCFC Assay
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Parthanatos Mediates AIMP2-Activated Age-Dependent Dopaminergic Neuronal Loss
Researchers found that transgenic overexpression of a parkin substrate, aminoacyl-tRNA synthetase complex interacting multifunctional protein-2 (AIMP2), led to a selective, age-dependent, progressive loss of dopaminergic neurons via activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. [Nat Neurosci]
Abstract | Press Release

c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase-Mediated Phosphorylation of DLK Suppresses Its Ubiquitination to Promote Neuronal Apoptosis
To respond to axonal damage, neurons must transmit a retrograde signal to the nucleus to enable a transcriptional stress response. Here scientists describe a mechanism by which this signal is propagated through injury-induced stabilization of dual leucine zipper-bearing kinase (DLK/MAP3K12). [J Cell Biol] Abstract

Panx1 Regulates Neural Stem and Progenitor Cell Behaviors Associated with Cytoskeletal Dynamics and Interacts with Multiple Cytoskeletal Elements
The current study builds on the authors recent discovery of Panx1 expression in ventricular zone neural stem and progenitor cells, and on the demonstrated interaction of Panx1 with the cytoskeleton. They demonstrated that Panx1 also plays roles in two additional cell behaviors associated with neurogenesis, including cell migration and neurite extension. [Cell Commun Signal] Abstract | Full Article

Cortical Region-Specific Engraftment of Embryonic Stem Cell-Derived Neural Progenitor Cells Restores Axonal Sprouting to a Subcortical Target and Achieves Motor Functional Recovery in a Mouse Model of Neonatal Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Injury
Researchers evaluated the ability of embryonic stem cell-derived neural progenitor cells to become cortical deep layer neurons, to restore the neural network, and to repair brain damage in an hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy mouse model. [Frontier Cell Neurosci] Full Article

Engrafted Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Anterior Specified Neural Progenitors Protect the Rat Crushed Optic Nerve
Investigators examined the functional improvement and protection of host retinal ganglion cells in addition to the survival, integration and neuronal differentiation capabilities of anterior specified neural progenitors following intravitreal transplantation. [PLoS One] Full Article

Diazepam Treatment Blocks the Elevation of Hippocampal Activity and the Accelerated Proliferation of Hippocampal Neural Stem Cells after Focal Cerebral Ischemia in Mice
To block the elevation of hippocampal activity after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in mice, scientists utilized a typical ?-aminobutyric acid type A receptor active modulator, diazepam. With MCAO mice treated with diazepam, they observed complete disappearance of the elevation of hippocampal activity. Additionally, the diazepam treatment blocked the elevation of neural stem cell proliferation after MCAO. [J Neurosci Res] Abstract

HIF-1a Involved in Neuronal Apoptosis after Traumatic Brain Injury in Adult Rats
Glutamate excitotoxic model of primary cortex neurons was introduced to investigate the role of hypoxia-inducible factor-1a (HIF-1a) in neuronal apoptosis; the result implied HIF-1a was associated with the regulation of p53 and BNIP3 in the apoptotic neurons. [J Mol Neurosci] Abstract

Potential Protective Effect of Biphasic Electrical Stimulation against Growth Factor-Deprived Apoptosis on Olfactory Bulb Neural Progenitor Cells through the Brain-Derived Neurotrophic Factor-Phosphatidylinositol 3′-Kinase/Akt Pathway
Researchers investigated the protective effects of biphasic electrical stimulation on olfactory bulb neural precursor cells against growth factor-deprived apoptosis, examining the survival and apoptotic features of the cells. [Exp Biol Med] Abstract | Press Release

tCFA15, A Trimethyl Cyclohexenonic Long-Chain Fatty Alcohol, Affects Neural Stem Fate and Differentiation by Modulating Notch1 Activity
Researchers investigated the effects of tCFA15, a non-peptidic compound, on the differentiation of neural stem cell-derived neurospheres, and have found that tCFA15 promotes their differentiation into neurons and reduces their differentiation into astrocytes, in a dose-dependent manner. [Eur J Pharmacol] Abstract

Neural Stem Cells Grafts Decrease Neural Apoptosis Associated with Caspase-7 Downregulation and BDNF Upregulation in Rats Following Spinal Cord Hemisection
Researchers showed that neural stem cells, possessing the capacity to differentiate into neurons and astrocytes, exhibited a neuroprotective effect by an anti-apoptosis mechanism in spinal cord hemi-transected rats despite not improving behavior. [Cell Mol Neurobiol] Abstract

Ligand Modified Nanoparticles Increases Cell Uptake, Alters Endocytosis and Elevates Glioma Distribution and Internalization
Scientists showed that nanoparticle modification with the IL-13 peptide could improve glioma treatment by selectively increasing cellular uptake, facilitating cell internalization, altering the uptake pathway and increasing glioma localization. [Sci Rep] Full Article

Take the
Microglia-Mediated Neuroinflammation Is an Amplifier of Virus-Induced Neuropathology
The author summarizes current findings of neuroinflammatory responses within the central nervous system by direct infection of neural cells by mouse hepatitis virus and the mechanisms by which glial cell responses ultimately contribute to the neuropathology on demyelination. [J Neurovirol] Abstract

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Translational CNS Summit
Miller School Offers Brain Cancer Vaccine to Recurrent Cases
A revolutionary brain cancer vaccine clinical trial once limited to patients with newly diagnosed glioblastoma multiforme is now offered to University of Miami Health System patients with a recurrent brain tumor. As in the original study, the patient’s own tumor cells are used to develop the vaccine that is designed to target the immune system, offering hope to those with the most common and aggressive form of brain tumor. [Miller School of Medicine] Press Release

Takeda and Zinfandel Pharmaceuticals Initiate Phase III TOMMORROW Trial of AD-4833 for the Delay of Onset of Mild Cognitive Impairment Due to Alzheimer’s Disease in Subjects Selected Using a Genetic-Based Biomarker Risk Assignment Algorithm
Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited and its partner, Zinfandel Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced the initiation of TOMMORROW, a global Phase III clinical trial investigating a genetic-based biomarker risk assignment algorithm to predict risk of mild cognitive impairment due to Alzheimer’s disease within a five year period. [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited] Press Release

International Stem Cell Corporation Enters into Clinical Research Agreement for Parkinson’s Disease Program
International Stem Cell Corporation (ISCO) announced that it has entered into a master clinical research agreement with Duke University to conduct clinical trials research in Parkinson’s disease using ISCO’s innovative neural stem cell product. [International Stem Cell Corporation] Press Release

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NEW Postdoctoral Position – Glia and Neural Stem/Progenitor Cell Interactions (University of Kentucky College)

Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Neuroscience (University of Utah)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Stem Cell Biology (University of Southern California)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurosteroids and Neural Stem Cells in Developing Brain (Children’s National Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neural Circuit Formation and Regeneration (Duke University Medical Center)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Itch Sensation (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University)

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