Volume 7.33 | Aug 21

Neural Cell News 7.33 August 21, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Competing Molecular Interactions of aPKC Isoforms Regulate Neuronal Polarity
Researchers showed that, in embryonic hippocampal neurons, two atypical protein kinase (aPKC) isoforms, aPKC-λ and PKM-ζ, are expressed. The localization of these isoforms is spatially distinct in a polarized neuron. aPKC-λ, as well as Par3, localizes at the presumptive axon, whereas PKM-ζ and Par3 are distributed at non-axon-forming neurites. [Proc Natl Acad Sci USA] Abstract | Press Release
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PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
Axin Directs the Amplification and Differentiation of Intermediate Progenitors in the Developing Cerebral Cortex
Researchers found that the scaffold protein Axin is a critical regulator that determines the intermediate progenitors (IP) population size and ultimately the number of neurons during neurogenesis in the developing cerebral cortex. The increase of the IP pool is mediated by the interaction between Axin and GSK-3 in the cytoplasmic compartments of the progenitors. [Neuron] Abstract | Video Abstract

Targeting 5-HT1A Receptors in Astrocytes to Protect Dopaminergic Neurons in Parkinsonian Models
Scientists examined whether enrichment with healthy striatal astrocytes can provide neuroprotection against progressive dopaminergic neurodegeneration. Serotonin 1A (5-HT1A) agonist 8-OH-DPAT induced astrocyte proliferation and increased metallothionein-1/-2, antioxidative molecules, in cultured astrocytes and the striatum of mice. [Neurobiol Dis] Abstract

Oxidative Stress Defines the Neuroprotective or Neurotoxic Properties of Androgens in Immortalized Female Rat Dopaminergic Neuronal Cells
Researchers examined the effects of androgens under conditions of oxidative stress to determine whether androgens play a neuroprotective or neurotoxic role in dopamine neuronal function. Mitochondrial function, cell viability, intracellular calcium levels, and mitochondrial calcium influx were examined in response to androgens under both nonoxidative and oxidative stress conditions. [Endocrinology] Abstract

Dynein Interacts with the Neural Cell Adhesion Molecule (NCAM180) to Tether Dynamic Microtubules and Maintain Synaptic Density in Cortical Neurons
The authors identified a novel and direct interaction between dynein and the 180 kDa isoform of the neural cell adhesion molecule (NCAM). Live cell assays indicated that the NCAM180-dependent recruitment of dynein to the cortex leads to the selective stabilization of microtubules projecting to NCAM180 patches at the cell periphery. [J Biol Chem] Abstract | Full Article

Cathepsin X Promotes 6-Hydroxydopamine-Induced Apoptosis of PC12 and SH-SY5Y Cells
The cysteine carboxypeptidase cathepsin X is an important player in degenerative processes under normal ageing and pathological conditions. Researchers investigated the potential role of cathepsin X in 6-hydroxydopamine-induced toxicity in the pheochromocytoma cell line PC12 and neuroblastoma cell line SH-SY5Y. [Neuropharmacology] Abstract

Evaluation of the Effect of NT-3 and Biodegradable Poly-L-Lactic Acid Nanofiber Scaffolds on Differentiation of Rat Hair Follicle Stem Cells into Neural Cells In Vitro
Since treatment duration in neural repair is very important, researchers evaluated the effect of NT-3 and poly-L-lactic acid on differentiation time of bulge stem cells of rat hair follicle to neural-like cells. [J Mol Neurosci] Abstract

Reaction of Small Heat-Shock Proteins to Different Kinds of Cellular Stress in Cultured Rat Hippocampal Neurons
The authors previously described that cultured rat hippocampal neurons express five of the 11 small heat shock protein (sHsp) family members but only upregulate two of them (HspB1 and HspB5) at the protein level after heat stress. Since neurons have to cope with many other pathological conditions, they investigated in this study the expression of all five expressed sHsps on mRNA and protein level after sublethal sodium arsenite and oxidative and hyperosmotic stress. [Cell Stress Chaperones] Abstract

Wnt/β-Catenin Signaling Regulates Neuronal Differentiation of Mesenchymal Stem Cells
Using neuron-specific enolase and nestin as neuronal markers, researchers examined the role of Wnt/β-catenin signaling in mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) neuronal differentiation. The results indicated that the expression of β-catenin increased markedly during the neuronal differentiation of MSCs. [Biochem Biophys Res Commun] Abstract

FOXO3 Shares Common Targets with ASCL1 Genome-Wide and Inhibits ASCL1-Dependent Neurogenesis
Scientists identified FOXO3 direct targets genome-wide in primary cultures of adult neural progenitor cells (NPCs). Interestingly, FOXO3-bound sites are enriched for motifs for bHLH transcription factors, and FOXO3 shares common targets with the proneuronal bHLH transcription factor ASCL1/MASH1 in NPCs. [Cell Rep] Abstract | Full Text | Graphical Abstract

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Mapping Neuronal Diversity One Cell at a Time
A universally applicable neuron classification system should be based on traits that are objectively quantifiable, sufficiently diverse, and reproducible in independent laboratories. Such a classification method would provide new insights into central nervous system organization, development, and function, and might reveal unexpected relationships between neuronal subtypes. [Science] Abstract

Functional Hyperemia and Mechanisms of Neurovascular Coupling in the Retinal Vasculature
In this review, the retinal functional hyperemia response is described, and the cellular mechanisms that may mediate the response are assessed. These neurovascular coupling mechanisms include neuronal stimulation of glial cells, leading to the release of vasoactive arachidonic acid metabolites onto blood vessels, release of potassium from glial cells onto vessels, and production and release of nitric oxide, lactate, and adenosine from neurons and glia. [J Cereb Blood Flow Metab] Abstract

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Stem Cell Society Singapore 2013 Symposium
Huffington Foundation Gives $5 Million to Neurodegeneration Consortium
The Huffington Foundation has committed $5 million to the Neurodegeneration Consortium (NDC), a multi-institutional collaboration to study and treat Alzheimer’s and other neurodegenerative diseases. The NDC was established with an inaugural $25 million challenge gift from the Robert A. and Renee E. Belfer Family Foundation to The University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Baylor College of Medicine and the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. [Baylor College of Medicine] Press Release

DelMar Pharmaceuticals to Accelerate Glioblastoma Clinical Trial in the United States
DelMar Pharmaceuticals, Inc. announced that the company has received a notice of allowance from the United States Food and Drug Administration that will enable the company to accelerate the dose-escalation of its ongoing Phase I/II of VAL-083 in refractory glioblastoma multiforme patients. [DelMar Pharmaceuticals Inc.] Press Release

Neuropathy Action Foundation and GBS/CIDP Foundation International Launch Multifocal Motor Neuropathy (MMN) Campaign to Raise Awareness of Rare Neurological Condition
The Neuropathy Action Foundation and the GBS/CIDP Foundation International announced the launch of a joint nationwide campaign to raise awareness of Multifocal Motor Neuropathy, a rare and incurable neurological condition in which multiple motor nerves are attacked by the immune system. The national campaign will include an educational MMN-specific brochure, as well as a public service announcement to help patients and medical professionals identify, treat and manage the progressive condition. [GBS|CIPD Foundation International] Press Release

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NEW World Stem Cell Summit (WSCS) 2013
December 4-6, 2013
San Diego, United States

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NEW Tenure-Track Faculty Position – Neuroscience (University of Utah)

Research Technologist – Human Pluripotent Stem Cell Products (STEMCELL Technologies Inc.)

Postdoctoral Research Associate – Stem Cell Biology (University of Southern California)

Postdoctoral Position – Neurosteroids and Neural Stem Cells in Developing Brain (Children’s National Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Research Fellow – Neural Circuit Formation and Regeneration (Duke University Medical Center)

Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Therapy and Epigenetics of Retina (University of Pittsburgh)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Itch Sensation (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University)

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