Volume 7.29 | Jul 24

Neural Cell News 7.29 July 24, 2013
Neural Cell News
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Scientists Transplant Photoreceptors from Retina Grown ‘In a Dish’
Scientists have carried out the first successful transplant of light-sensitive photoreceptor cells extracted from a synthetic retina, grown ‘in a dish’ from embryonic stem cells. [Press release from University College London discussing online prepublication in Nature Biotechnology] Press Release | Abstract
Brain Food: NeuroCult SM1 for Long-Term Primary Neuronal Culture. View Data!
PUBLICATIONS (Ranked by impact factor of the journal)
M2 Microglia and Macrophages Drive Oligodendrocyte Differentiation during CNS Remyelination
Researchers found that a switch from an pro-inflammatory- to an anti-inflammatory or immunoregulatory (M2)-dominant response occurred in microglia and peripherally derived macrophages as remyelination started. Oligodendrocyte differentiation was enhanced in vitro with M2 cell conditioned media and impaired in vivo following intra-lesional M2 cell depletion. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract | Press Release

Synergistic Binding of Transcription Factors to Cell-Specific Enhancers Programs Motor Neuron Identity
Three transcription factors, Ngn2, Isl1 and Lhx3, were sufficient to program rapidly and efficiently spinal motor neuron identity when expressed in differentiating mouse embryonic stem cells. Replacement of Lhx3 by Phox2a led to specification of cranial, rather than spinal, motor neurons. [Nat Neurosci] Abstract

Proteostasis of Polyglutamine Varies Among Neurons and Predicts Neurodegeneration
Researchers used optical pulse labeling to measure effects of polyglutamine (polyQ) expansions on the mean lifetime of a fragment of huntingtin, the protein that causes Huntington’s disease, in living neurons. [Nat Chem Biol] Abstract | Press Release

hESC-Derived Olig2+ Progenitors Generate a Subtype of Astroglia with Protective Effects against Ischaemic Brain Injury
Scientists used an Olig2-GFP human embryonic stem cell (hESC) reporter to demonstrate that hESC-derived Olig2+ progenitors generate a subtype of previously uncharacterized astroglia (Olig2PC-Astros). These Olig2PC-Astros differ substantially from astroglia differentiated from Olig2-negative hESC-derived neural progenitor cells, particularly in their neuroprotective properties. [Nat Commun] Full Article

Small Molecules Enable Neurogenin 2 to Efficiently Convert Human Fibroblasts into Cholinergic Neurons
Scientists showed that two small molecules enable the transcription factor Neurogenin 2 to convert human fetal lung fibroblasts into cholinergic neurons with high purity and efficiency. [Nat Commun] Abstract

Nanoparticle-Programmed Self-Destructive Neural Stem Cells for Glioblastoma Targeting and Therapy
A three-step glioblastoma-tropic delivery and therapy method using nanoparticle programmed self-destructive neural stem cells (NSCs) is demonstrated in vivo. NSCs eventually undergo cell death and release impregnated MSN-Dox, which subsequently induces toxicity towards surrounding glioma cells. [Small] Abstract

Mutations that Disrupt PHOXB Interaction with the Neuronal Calcium Sensor HPCAL1 Impede Cellular Differentiation in Neuroblastoma
Abrogation of the PHOX2B–HPCAL1 interaction by shRNA knockdown of HPCAL1 in neuroblastoma cells expressing PHOX2B led to impaired neurite outgrowth with transcriptional profiles indicative of inhibited sympathetic neuronal differentiation. [Oncogene] Abstract

Transgenic Overexpression of Sox17 Promotes Oligodendrocyte Development and Attenuates Demyelination
Researchers investigated Sox17 function in white matter development and adult injury with a newly generated transgenic mouse overexpressing Sox17 in the oligodendrocyte lineage under the CNPase promoter. [J Neurosci] Abstract

TGM2 Inhibition Attenuates ID1 Expression in CD44-High Glioma-Initiating Cells
Transglutaminase 2 (TGM2) was highly expressed in CD44-high glioblastoma tissues and tumor-derived glioma-initiating cell lines. TGM2 knockdown impaired cell proliferation and induced apoptosis in CD44-high glioma-initiating cell lines. [Neuro-Oncology] Abstract

Developmental Stage Dependent Neural Stem Cells Sensitivity to Methylmercury Chloride on Different Biofunctional Surfaces
Researchers demonstrated that developmental sensitivity of HUCB-neural stem cells (NSC) to methylmercury chloride (MeHgCl) depends upon the type of adhesive biomolecules and the geometry of biodomains. Proliferation of HUCB-NSC was diminished in time and MeHgCl concentration dependent manner. [Toxicol In Vitro] Abstract

Happy Neurons lead to Happy Neuroscientists: NeuroCult SM Primary Neuronal Culture Kits
Blurring the Boundaries: Developmental and Activity-Dependent Determinants of Neural Circuits
The human brain comprises approximately 100 billion neurons that express a diverse, and often subtype-specific, set of neurotransmitters and voltage-gated ion channels. Given this enormous complexity, a fundamental question is how is this achieved? The acquisition of neurotransmitter phenotype was viewed as being set by developmental programs ‘hard wired’ into the genome. [Trends Neurosci] Abstract

Resident Adult Neural Stem Cells in Parkinson’s Disease-The Brain’s Own Repair System?
The authors review the reported changes in neural stem cells (NSCs) in the subventricular zone of Parkinson disease (PD) animal models and PD patients, which are due to a lack of striatal dopamine. Furthermore, they summarize the reports that describe efforts to stimulate NSCs to replace dopaminergic cells in the SN and restore striatal dopamine levels. [Eur J Pharmacol] Abstract

Visit our reviews page to see a complete list of reviews in the neuroscience field.
New Million-Dollar Trial for Multiple Sclerosis Drug
Cleveland Clinic has been selected as the primary investigator in a $11.3 million nationwide study funded primarily by the National Institutes of Health to conduct a trial of the oral drug ibudilast for progressive multiple sclerosis patients. [Cleveland Clinic] Press Release

Banner Health, Mayo Clinic Receive Grant to Identify Early Parkinson’s Patients
Researchers from Mayo Clinic Arizona and Banner Sun Health Research Institute are working together on a diagnostic test to identify early Parkinson’s disease in patients thanks to a $152,486 grant from The Michael J. Fox Foundation for Parkinson’s Research. [Banner Health] Press Release

AB Science and Its Partners Receive EUR 8.6 Million as Part of a Project Supported by Bpifrance in Alzheimer’s Disease
AB Science SA announced the creation of a partnership in the development of a new targeted therapy in Alzheimer’s disease. The consortium will receive EUR 8.6 million from Bpifrance within the framework of the Industrial Strategic Innovation program, and gathers together AB Science, the Brain and Spine Institute, MIRCen from the Atomic Energy Commission, the National Institute of Health and Medical Research, Imagine Foundation and Skuldtech, a biotechnology company specialized in the discovery of biomarkers and development of diagnostic and testing tools companions. [FierceBiotechResearch] Press Release

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NEW 3rd Geneocell Summer School: Advanced Stem Cell Technologies & Therapies
September 9-15, 2013
Izmit, Turkey

Visit our events page to see a complete list of events in the neural cell community.
NEW Postdoctoral Position – Stem Cell Therapy and Epigenetics of Retina (University of Pittsburgh)

NEW Postdoctoral Fellow – Cancer Research (University of British Columbia)

PhD Studentship – Neuroscience (Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Molecular and Neuronal Mechanisms of Itch Sensation (Washington University School of Medicine)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Tissue Engineering (School of Chemical & Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University)

Postdoctoral Fellow – Neural Plasticity (National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, NIH)

Director of Cell Processing Facility (S L Collins Associates, Inc.)

PhD Opportunity – Role of Fibroblast Growth Factors in the Generation of Neuronal Diversity in the Spinal Cord (University of East Anglia)

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